I’m An Alcoholic: Inside Recovery, BBC 2, BBC iPlayer, Narrator Eve Pope, Producer and Director Jemma Gander.


Alcoholics Anonymous is 75 years old. The first meeting was advertised in The Financial Times (other newspapers wouldn’t allow such advertisements) and held in The Dorchester Hotel in 1947. Around 5000 meetings take place every day in the South East of England. Deepfake technology allows some of these alcoholics to tell their stories.

I’m already familiar with them. I’ve been to a meeting with my brother, Stephen (SEV) who was an alcoholic and read The Big Book. Last week somebody asked me when he’d died and I had to think about it. He was born in 1959 and was 35 when he died. So I guessed it was 1985.

When I did the eulogy at Bob’s funeral a few years ago, I told the tale of how he’d a fish supper in front of him and a bottle of Buckfast, when I found his body. The message was it wasn’t that bad. But it was for his mum.

AA makes demands on its members. Anyone that has read my longer story, Ugly Puggly, knows how badly written it is, but also how funny that cultish behaviour can be. But here it is literally a life saver. Admitting you are an alcoholic and you need the help of a higher power (whatever you want to call it), is the first step of 12. It takes a lifetime. It makes a lifetime. It is a lifeline, but not everybody can cling on. Amen.  

Surge, BBC 2, BBC iPlayer, Writers Rupert Jones and Rita Kalnejais, Director Aneil Karia.


I watch lots of films. I guess it’s a way of turning off my mind. A passive acquiescence. But I found Surge, claustrophobic. The plots of most stories are quite simple. Make it hard for the protagonist.  And I’m not going to go into that thing of there only being seven basic types. Joseph (Ben Whishaw of This is Going to Hurt) has a shitty job. He works in security at a London airport. He goes home, comes back and does the same things every day. It’s his birthday. That too is part of the routine. It’s all there on his face. He hates his job and he hates his life. Nobody cares about him, even his mum and dad are unsympathetic characters.

Joseph has a meltdown. He rebels against the mundane life that is killing his spirit. In trying to make things better, his mental health gets worse. Mad, bad or sad? As he gets madder, the viewer (me) gets sadder, because good writing demand that these kinds of things could happen, do happen. I’ve seen them happen many times.

Bob, for example, trying too hard to be normal. And being sent to prison in Greenock for six months for carrying an offensive weapon, a scrim, for cleaning windows. He was completely bonkers. As bonkers as Joseph is here.  Makes you think. At least he didn’t rob a bank.  

The Ice Cream Wars, BBC 2, BBC Scotland, BBC iPlayer, narrator Kate Dickie, director Robert Neil.



Start with the big stuff. Headlines that grab your attention—and demand something needs to be done. The murders of six members of the Doyle family in April 1984, which included a baby and fourteen-year-old boy in Bankend Street in the north-east of Glasgow, elicits that guttural response.

The bad guys were captured. Joe Steele, who is around the same age as me, and (‘TC’) Thomas Campbell, who died aged 66, in 2019 at his home in the East End of Glasgow.  They were sent to life in prison for the arson attack. Someone had climbed the stairs in the modern tenement block in Bankend Street, poured petrol through the door and set it alight. Six of the Doyle family died, three survived. After seven hours of deliberation, the jury reached a ‘Guilty’ verdict that was never in much doubt. Joe Steele later quipped, ‘If they’d tried the Pope, they’d have found him guilty’.

Andrew Doyle was one of the victims. He was aged eighteen and drove an ice-cream van for Marchetti Bros in the East End of Glasgow. At a time of high unemployment, drivers could make decent money. Housing schemes cut off from shops and pubs, a desert wae windows, Billy Connolly called it. Residents came to rely on the chimes of the ice cream vans to bring fags and sweets and odds and ends. Marchetti Bros expanded their fleet in the East End of Glasgow to 37 ice-cream vans. A lucrative market.

An ice-cream war was a term coined by the media to describe the motive for murder.  Archie McDougall, Company Secretary for Marchetti Bros, in other words, a boss, described the more mundane ways vans would try to take over their runs. A non-Marchetti Bros would appear and speed ahead of their van, sounding its bells. There was nothing illegal in this. Marchetti Bros had ways of dealing with interlopers.  All ice-cream van driver needed was a trading license. Issued by Glasgow Council, which was (s)Miles Better as the marketing campaign of that time was trying to present to the world.

TC Campbell didn’t have a van license, but his wife did. He’d done time for violence and robbery and had a criminal record. By his account, this was him going straight. Archie McDougall told how one of his drivers had handed back the keys to the van. He’d been made ‘an offer he couldn’t refuse’ and he named TC Campbell. He was a hard man and a hard man to refuse.

There was talk of more than sweeties being traded from the back of vans. In other words, drugs. But it was high risk. Nanette Pollock, Detective Strathclyde Police, admitted they’d also heard the same rumours, but searched very few vans. For crooks it was a mug’s game. If a van was searched there was nowhere to hide.

TC Campbell said he’d gone straighter. Read into that what you will. I’m guessing what he meant was no longer carrying out armed robberies. But if somebody was offering to sell knocked-off fags or 1000 boxes of Mars bars, he had a ready market.

It’s not clear where Joe Steele comes into this other than by association. His dad was a safe-cracker and knew TC Campbell’s dad from prison. They were versed in the unwritten rule of working-class neighbourhoods: you never grass. That’s what made you who you were.

Andrew Doyle, for example, who was called Fatboy by TC and his associates, was beaten up. The windscreen of the ice-cream van he was driving was shot at by a shotgun. But he went back to work and didn’t grass. A working theory used by detectives on the Doyle murder case was setting fire to his house was simply an escalation of what had happened before.

Norrie Walker and Charlie Craig were Strathclyde Police’s most senior criminal investigators. They’d a reputation for getting things done. TC Campbell was quickly in the frame. But he wasn’t alone in the dock. Police charged seven men for various offences during the ice-cream war. These included, Thomas Gray known as Tam Bear. He was an associate of TC. He was like a Viking berserker. Gary Moore. He was a tough, tough, customer. Thomas Lafferty, known as ‘Shadow’ was TC’s brother-in-law. And Joe Steele.

Joe Steele’s mum got up on the dock and swore on the bible her son had been at home, with her that night. And she’d seen him at 3 am. She wasn’t believed.

Tam McGraw died in 2007. He denied any involvement in the murder of the Doyle family. He was questioned but his alibi that he was away buying a car was accepted by Strathclyde Police. He was muscling in on the ice-cream business. He later became a successful businessman. He’d another name, The Licensee, which had an apparent association with the pub he owned, The Caravel. Robert McInnes, Detective, Serious Crime Squad suggestion that he’d immunity from arrest and a license to commit crimes, because he was a grass, or in more technical terms, a police informant, were shot down.  ‘Rubbish. Absolute garbage. How can he be licensed when we’ve caught him?’

Strathclyde Police, as you’d expect, didn’t help Paul Ferris when he was filming his life story in and around Glasgow at that time. Ferris, of course, was involved in another high profile murder trial in which he walked claiming police corruption. Tam McGraw, ‘The Licensee,’ was out as a major source for Strathclyde Police in Ferris’s book.

Joe Steele, whose constant escape bids, including handcuffing and supergluing himself to the gates of Buckingham Palace, kept the injustice of their case in the media, and wider public. He broke a lifetime of habit and named Tam McGraw as a grass. He was grassing a grasser. It was McGraw, he said, that had ordered the frighteners be put on Doyle and his front door set alight. TC said the same thing to a journalist.

Scotland’s stories of injustice and corruption take a wide road around the murder conviction of Raymond Gilmour in 1981 for the rape and murder of schoolgirl Pamela Hastie.  Gilmour was around the same school age, but a bit dumb. That’s not a crime, or most of my mates and me would be in the dock. But Gilmour was local and knew the highways and byways of the woods and paths in Johnson where the attack happened. He was also a flasher. A suspect that would be known to the cops. A suspect that was arrested and admitted he done it. His confession was the key to his conviction.

Gilmour did confess. But the senior investigating officer quickly spotted inaccuracies in what he was confessing to. He might have been threatened with violence by the arresting officers. He might have been beat up.

In contrast, TC Campbell and Joe Steele would have expected to be threatened with violence and beaten up. Joseph Granger, for example, who was a key Crown witness the case, according to police statements said he was in Bankend Street that night with the accused, and went up the stairs with them. But when he went on the stand, and said he lied. He was arrested for perjury when he stepped down.

William Love, a petty-criminal, was in Barlinnie Prison, when he agreed to give evidence for the Crown. He claimed to have overheard TC and his gang plotting to burn down the Doyle’s home. A claim he later retracted after he’d fled to London.

Evidence in both cases was policemen standing up in the dock and telling the jurors what they’d faithfully recorded the accused of having said. The equivalent of ‘it was me guv’.  

 Charlie Craig was head of The Serious Crime Squad in Scotland. He closed the Gilmour case in the same way he closed the murder of the Doyle family. With little forensic, or supporting evidence, the police stepped into the breach. The murderers of the Doyle family have gone unfound and unpunished. As has the rapist and murderer of Pamela Hastie. But, then again, neither have the murderers of the 72 residents that died in Grenfell.   


In April 1984 an arson attack on the north-east of Glasgow killed six members of the same family.

Denise Mina, writer. The Doyle family are not involved in any criminality. They’re just this good working class family.

Police linked the attack to organized criminal gangs who were trying to muscle-in on the city’s ice-cream trade.

A lack of shops. A lack of pubs. Meant the ice-cream vans were the ideal way in which you could serve goods around the housing estates.

One victim, Andrew Doyle, worked as an ice-cream van driver in a housing scheme in north-east Glasgow. 

Archie McDougall. Company Secretary, Marchetti (Bros). 37 vans in the East End of Glasgow. Very, very, friendly and outgoing. Which would be ideal for operating an ice-cream van.

It was common knowledge the Thomas Campbell was trying to intimidate drivers by heavy violence.

In the weeks before the attack Andrew Doyle had been victim of theats and intimidation.

A man piled out of the car with a balaclava and shotgun and blasted the windscreen.

The call came out to say, shots fired.

T.C. Campbell slashed, stabbed his way through Glasgow. He was a terrible man.

The trial that followed would be the biggest of its kind in Scotland.

This was the largest mass murder in Scottish criminal history.

At that time I thought whoever was on trial didn’t stand a chance.

After seven hours of deliberation, the jury returned with its verdict.

I remember thinking, I hope you rot in hell.

Joe Steele’s son claimed he’d been with her the whole night.

Q Why did you think the jury disregarded your evidence.

A Don’t know. I stood there and told the truth.

He (Steele) used glue to attach himself to the handrails of the Palace.

Denise Mina: We’re living with the consequences of this case. Suspicion of the police. The beleaguered feelings of the people on these estates. How do these things happen?

April 1984.

Les Trueman. Detective Strathclyde Police. The pressure of the whole thing was enormous. Something had to be done. We couldn’t let that go. That’s not something we could write up and say, ach well, you can’t really prove anything.

The manpower alone was immense.

Marion Scott, Reporter, Sunday Mail. Two of Glasgow’s most senior detective. Charlie Craig and (Detective Superintendent) Norrie Walker took charge of the manhunt.

Norrie Walker and Charlie Craig were kinda hewn from the same rock.

Charlie Craig was known a no-nonsense cop that would get things done. And seemingly cases that couldn’t be cracked. He would always seem to find his man.

Nanette Pollock, Detective Strathclyde Police. Charlie Craig’s approach to a crime was when eventually the investigation was done, and you got your person, not only did you prove the case against him, but you also proved nobody else could have done it.

Ken Smith, Reporter, Evening Times. The police were doing their best by following on various lines of enquiry. They were quite up front about the only line of enquiry they could see was the son that worked for an ice-cream van. They could see no other reason why this family would be targeted.

With the blaze leaving no physical clues. The police swept the city for witnesses who could provide information about the fire. They made a breakthrough with William Love.

A petty criminal awaiting trial for assault and robbery in Barlinnie Prison.

Douglas Skelton, Journalist & Crime writer:What he told was that he had been in a bar (The Jigging) in the east-end of Glasgow on a particular night, when he heard Thomas Campbell and others discussing setting fire to fatboy’s door. Fatboy being the way they talked about Andrew Doyle.

Police also interviewed another possible witness. Joseph Granger.

In an statement, he said he’d been with the accused in a street on Bankend Street on the night of the fire.

12th May 1984.

The police finally started to make arrests and among them was Thomas Campbell. Thomas Campbell had bought a van. His wife, she had the trader’s license. Effectively the Campbell family were in the ice-cream van business.

Arrested several associates.

Thomas Gray known as Tam Bear. He was an associate of TC. He was like a Viking berserker.  

Gary Moore. He was a tough, tough, customer.

Thomas Lafferty, known as Shadow was TC’s brother-in-law.

In Joe Steele’s case, TC was friendly with his brothers. And TC’s father knew Joe Steele’s father.

Another associate was questioned, but released without charge, after providing an alibi.

Tam McGraw, I think, also owned ice-cream vans. And, in fact, he helped TC to buy his ice-cream van.

Nearly six months on, police had charged seven men, in relation to the fire and other crimes committed during the ice-cream wars.

[did the wars stop then?] baseline:

3rd April 1984. Trial.

Bill McFarlan, Reporter STV. This was the biggest trial Scotland had known. Everybody, all the newspapers, radio and television stations, they were all there covering it.

Ken Smith, Reporter, Evening Times. 7 accused. Each had a senior counsel. So when you walked in you  saw maybe 14 or 15 people. People with wigs on. Just a sea of wigs.

Four of the accused where charged with plotting and carrying out the murders.  TC the ringleader. Thomas Gray, Gary Moore and Joe Steele.

The other three were charged with incidences of violence and intimidation relating to the ice-cream wars.

Archie McDougall. Company Secretary, Marchetti (Bros). The only time I’d been in court before if we were chasing drivers for the money they owed us. And I was slightly nervous. But I  managed to give the evidence I was asked to give. Reads transcript.

‘The court was told that one of the van drivers was eighteen-year-old Andrew Doyle, who’d been the driver of an ice-cream van controlled by Marchetti Bros. When Archie Dougal, company secretary of the wholesale ice-cream firm, was asked what happened to his young driver, a hushed court heard him reply ‘He was burnt to death’. 

I don’t even remember saying that.

10th September 1984.

On the 6th day of the trial, three surviving members of the Doyle family took to the witness stand.

Ken Smith, Reporter, Evening Times. This was just a decent Glasgow family that had been targeted. They just so little evidence to give. They just woke up in the middle of the night with a fire and their family dying around them. Their sheer innocence meant that their evidence was not in any way dramatic. Just heart-breaking.

I was out talking to people in the East-End and there was no doubt you were talking to some terrible, terrible people.

You know T.C. Campbell, he was a terrible, terrible man. And you know the fact his wife was running an ice-cream van, and he, in all innocence, was trying to say, ‘it had nothing to do with me’. 

Archie McDougall. Company Secretary, Marchetti (Bros). I must admit I was surprised that TC was maintaining his innocence. From my point of view, he was behind it from the start.

The case against TC centred on objects discovered as his home while he was being arrested.

Douglas Skelton, Journalist & Crime writer: They found pick-axe handles and other weapons. And a map, like a street-directory map, with Bankend Street circled.

As well as the weapons and the map, the prosecution case rested on the evidence of eyewitnesses. And on the sixth day of the trial they called Joseph Granger.  

Douglas Skelton, Journalist & Crime writer. One of the biggest shocks would have been Joseph Granger, who, according to his police statements,  was actually in Bankend Street with them on the night of the fire, with them as allegedly two men went up the stairs. 

On the stand he said that he didn’t actually make those statements.

He signed them because he wanted to get away. He was insistent on that. He was promptly arrested as he came off the stand, for perjury.

Without Joseph Granger’s evidence there was nothing to tie Gary Moore and Thomas Gray to the scene. The murder charges against them would later be dismissed. Leaving only TC and Joe Steele accused of the murders.

Douglas Skelton, Journalist & Crime writer. The onus fell on William Love to be the star witness. (only witness).

Ken Smith, Reporter, Evening Times. When William Love came in and gave evidence of overhearing TC plotting the case in a pub – go through your mind, would you speak so openly in front of other people about this?

Then again, part of your brains says, perhaps he was so arrogant and so full of his hold over the area that he could speak about this, knowing nobody would talk about it.

3rd October 1984.

The prosecution would call on the testimony of police officers who arrested Campbell and Steele.

Four officers reported that Steele had confessed on the way to the police station.

Joe Steele. They said they went into the motor and drove away, and right away I said, ‘I’m no the one that lit the match’.  Same sort of thing as if saying ‘I was there but never lit the match’. Which was pure nonsense. Nonsense.

The copper who were interviewing us at the time of the murders, that was Charlie Craig, Walker. They said to us, ‘We know you never done it. But it’s up to you to get yourself out of it. Help yourself to help us.’

So I would have just been putting people in the same position as me that genuinely didnae know nothing or anything like that.

When I was a wean, nane of my family talk to the police. None of my family do. None of my pals kind of thing. We were brought up that way.

Similarly, police officers also testified that TC had incriminated himself shortly after the arrest.

Douglas Skelton, Journalist & Crime writer : According to the evidence, TC blurted out: ‘I only wanted the van windaes shot out. The fire at Fat Boy’s was a frightener that went too far.’

These were all taken down and seen as confessions.

Denise Mina, Crime writer: At that time confessions that was a slam dunk.  You could just shut your book at that point because you had them.

[young]Bill McFarlan, Reporter STV. Jurors as asked to decide on the guilt or innocence of Thomas Campbell, aged 31 and Joseph Steele, aged 22, who are accused of murdering six members of the Doyle family by setting fire to their home.

Ken Smith, Reporter, Evening Times. When I went back to court that day and was I talking with Charlie Craig, who was in charge of the investigation, I said to him that my new editor thought the evidence was a bit thin.

And Charlie said to me, ‘really, what’s his name?’

‘What’s his car registration?’

He said it with such a straight face I actually thought he was genuinely joking. Or whether he would have had him stopped, because I think there was nervousness that the evidence was a bit thin.

Nanette Pollock, Detective Strathclyde Police. The Fiscal was happy with the case and the Crown was happy with the case and all the work that went into it with experienced detective officers…there’s no way that I would ever think it wasn’t the right people.

Robert McInnes, Detective, Serious Crime Squad. I don’t think there was enough evidence there. But I could see why they would be pressing them to get a conviction because it was a terrible crime.

Ken Smith, Reporter, Evening Times. There seemed to be an almost psychological pressure on the jury that these were criminals.  And whether the evidence they carried out the crime was thin, there seemed to be in no doubt they had carried it out.

10th October 1984.

[young]Bill McFarlan, Reporter STV. At 2.30 this afternoon, after seven hours of deliberation, the jury returned to the courtroom with its verdict.

News. Two men have been sentenced to life in prison for murdering a family of six in what became known as Glasgow’s ice-cream war.   

[older] Bill McFarlan STV:  T C Campbell and Joe Steele both given life sentences of 20 years. And T.C. Campbell given a further 10 years for a shotgun attack also. And when he was given that sentence, he turned around to the media, and glared in our direction. And I just remember thinking to myself, ‘may you rot in hell’.

The four other men accused were found guilty of a range of crimes relating to the ice-cream wars.

Release of Guildford 4. Release of Birmingham 6. Steele and Campbell became known as the Glasgow 2.


Thomas Love signs an affidavit for John Carol (QC) saying that what he said (in court) wasn’t true.

Douglas Skelton, Journalist & Crime writer. Getting William Love that was the key.

Douglas Skelton’s chapter in a book had become a whole book, ‘Frightener’.


TC speaks out. A campaign for the truth. Though truth we’ll find justice. And through justice we’ll find freedom. Our voice has never been heard. Nobody hears our side of the story. Nobody ever knows what the true facts are.

25th April 1993. Garthamlock.

31 year old Steele escaped from Glasgow, handcuffed himself to Buckingham Palace gates.

Brother: That one stint, turned the whole thing round.

John Carroll, Solicitor. There was a part of me that said, Good on yeh. You’ve made your point. You will go back. You will face the consequences of that. But good on yeh. You’ve not done anybody any harm.

Nanette Pollock, Detective Strathclyde Police. That’s the kind of extreme things that criminals will do. But I never doubted they didn’t do the crime.

Marion Scott, Reporter, Sunday Mail. Joe became the kind of Scarlet Pimpernel of the Scottish Prison System.  And it kept his story, certainly in the headlines.

Joe Steele. One of the police said, that’ll be you, you’ll be locked up for years and on the block and whatever.

And I was only kidding. I said, I’ll be oot next week.

25th May 1993.

Joe escapes from Saughton Prison. While escaped tries to maximise publicity.

I don’t take parole. The first thing they ask you is to show remorse for your guilt. I can’t for something I’ve not done.

Marion Scott, Reporter, Sunday Mail He couldn’t bear the thought of always being known as the man who   killed a whole family, and a child. I don’t blame him for that. And he would have got out years before. But I think he wanted the proper truth to come out.

Interview with [escapee] Joe Steele on Jura. I’ve lost my whole family. I’ve lost my son. He’s 12 now. He was 18 months when I came in. So obviously I’m bitter. I’ve done nine years. Ten years for something I huvenae done. And I’ve been crying out for nine years for help.

Joe Steele [present] I knew what I was doing when escaping and things like that. I never ever wanted to run away to stay away, which I’d have done if I was guilty. I was daeing that tae highlight my case and brought attention to it.

After six weeks on the run, Joe returned to Glasgow for one final publicity stunt.

[Then] You’ve escaped from prison. Break back into prison. That’d be very high profile. There’s a scaffolding tower near the admiration block of the front office.


The convicted killer Joseph Steele is staging a protest outside Glasgow’s Barlinnie Prison.

[Then] I’m up her to draw attention to the miscarriage of justice for myself and Tommy Campbell, who have been wrongfully convicted now for ten years. And nobody’s done nothing about it.

[present] I’d have never put my ma and the family, hail, rain or snow and protesting and all that.  I’d never put my ma through that in a million years if I was guilty. Never. 

Douglas Skelton, Journalist & Crime writer. And I lot of people said to me, that’s when their opinion changed. Because they said why would he…? He could have been away. But he wasn’t- he handed himself back. Why did he do that?

1st November 1993.

He’s one of Scotland’s most senior judges. Today Lord McCluskey accused the police of lying in court when it suited them, inventing false confessions to get people convicted.

I can think of several cases where a person is alleged to have made a statement which condemns himself, and to have made that statement in the presence only of one or two policemen in a police car.  

Les Trueman. Detective Strathclyde Police. It’s not terribly professional but you don’t know the circumstances, you know? There’s a lot of people who would maybe give you a statement,  but they don’t want to sign it. Others would tell you something but they don’t want to write it down. You know, that’s what you’re up against in these things.

The decades since TC’s and Joe Steele’s convictions had seen vast changes in Glasgow. And another initial suspect in the case had become one of the most powerful but mysterious men in the city. 

Ken Smith, Reporter, Evening Times. We now know that Thomas McGraw was one of the people they looked at. My understanding was that he had an alibi about buying a car, which, whether it’s true or not, at least took him out of the case.

Marion Scott, Reporter, Sunday Mail. Tam McGraw would have loved to have thought of himself as a gentleman gangster. And I knew that he would have made a great effort in making himself out to be a local hero. In you know, the schemes where he operated…But there was a nasty sinister side to him too.

Douglas Skelton, Journalist & Crime writer. TC didn’t think much of him. But yeh, I think he was a dangerous man and I think he would be capable of violence himself if he had to be. But he had a lot of different business interests as well. Legitimate business interests. His code name, allegedly with Strathclyde Police was  The Licensee and that was  because it’s been alleged that he was also an informer for the police. 

Robert McInnes, Detective, Serious Crime Squad.  I thought he got it because he was the licensee of a pub [The Caravel]. Some of the criminals, I’ve heard, think it was because he was telling the polis – he was licensed to commit crime. Rubbish. Absolute garbage. How can he be licensed when we’ve caught him?

I personally arrested his team twice.    

Marion Scott, Reporter, Sunday Mail. And during that time, of course, his reputation grew within, you know, a certain category of the criminal underworld.  Other figures hated him. Because they believed he was a grass.


[news then, Jackie Byrd] The secretary of state has decided to refer the cases of the so-called ice-cream wars back to the Appeal Court.

It’s understood the evidence is based on a key witness.  

[young]Bill McFarlan, Reporter STV. William Love says now and has said for the last five years that everything he told the police was a complete lie.

[Interview with WilliamLove]

December 1996.

12 years after their conviction, Joe Steel and TC were released on bail, pending an appeal.

Robert McInnes, Detective, Serious Crime Squad. I wasn’t surprised. Because of the whole case. Nobody ever saw who was at the door. Who went up the stairs. I don’t know how you could actually… be determined and say it was definitely them.

The Court of Criminal Appeal, 10th February 1998.

[then] Joseph Steel and TC arrived at the court this morning that would end 13 years of campaigning.

TC questioned by reporter. It could be all over today?

TC: Yes, I’m hopeful it will be.

Douglas Skelton, Journalist & Crime writer. I really thought it would go through. And common sense would prevail.

Lord Cullen gave their majority decision.

In the light of the views, which I have expressed, the appeals should, in my opinion, be refused.

Joe Steele and TC were returned to prison to server their life sentences. 

John Carroll, Solicitor. I did not have a high level of expectation in this case. In fact, it’s more common than not that someone who’s granted bail pending an appeal is going to lose that appeal.

[then] Steele and Campbell’s family were distressed and angered by the judgement.

Douglas Skelton, Journalist & Crime writer. When the judges were reeling out…reading the rulings, the person that was with me, leaned over and said, ‘I can’t believe what they’re doing to these guys.’

Marion Scott, Reporter, Sunday Mail. The effect this had on Joe was absolutely devastating. I think it was just as hard as the day he was convicted.

I think the judges, two-to-one on that occasion did not think that William Love changing his statement was enough…to cast doubt on the verdict of the court. Because they also had, of course, the police evidence.

In the original trial a number of police officer testified that they had heard Steele and Campbell admit to involvement in their murders during their arrests.

But another case raised questions about the creditability of such evidence.

[then]reporter] Police have opened their filed on the case of a Johnston man accused of killing a schoolgirl, following an 11-year campaign by the man’s mother. Raymond Gilmour was jailed for life for rape and murder in 1981.

Gordon Richie, solicitor to Raymond Gilmour: I was first approached around 1990. The crime was a particularly heinous one.   It was a schoolgirl who had left school early that day to go to a medical appointment. Because she’d left school early she was walking alone. Somebody attacked her and dragged her off the path. Raped her and strangled her.

Raymond Gilmour lived locally. He was someone of fairly low intelligence at that time. And he was known to frequent the woods. He was known to be a flasher. The police, er, apparently secured a confession from him. But the senior officer of the investigation at that time quickly dismissed the confession because it was full of inaccuracies. And it was quite apparent to him that the police had threatened and assaulted the suspect, Raymond Gilmour.

As time went on, the investigating officer was replaced, by the head of the…what they called The Serious Crime Squad in Scotland. A gentleman called Charlie Craig.

He took a decision at a very early stage of the investigation that Gilmour was the man that did it and he set about ensuring that there was evidence that supported his conclusion. He sent two senior detectives up to Longriggend Prison to effectively perform a taxi service from Longriggend to Paisley Sheriff Court and surprise, surprise – in the course of the journey, Raymond allegedly confessed again.

This confession would be the key to Raymond Gilmour’s conviction.  

Gordon Richie, solicitor to Raymond Gilmour: I began to speak to people and they would tell me that you know, ‘that’s funny what happened in Raymond Gilmour’s case because that’s very similar what happened with the Campbell and Steele case.’

And then, of course, the common thread appeared that it was the same investigating officer responsible for the two convictions.

You can draw your own conclusions from that.

In 2007, Raymond Gilmour was cleared of the rape and murder of Pamela Hastie.

Denise Mina, Crime Writer. A verbal perjury was when a cop just puts the cherry on his cake. By standing up and saying, ‘I went to arrest him and he said, “I did do this.”’

And the court kinda accepts this because you have to trust the police. You know, the legal system is fundamentally flawed, but it’s the best we’ve got. It’s the best bad system we have. And if you start trying to fine tune that to your own will, the whole thing is going to fall apart.


Marion Scott, Reporter, Sunday Mail. Everything changed with the establishment of the Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission.

This commission was set up to re-examine cases where miscarriages of justice were strongly suspected of having taken place.

The commission is an independent body with seven members with the authority to refer cases directly to The Criminal Appeal Court, a power previously held solely by the Secretary of State.

Marion Scott, Reporter, Sunday Mail.  For the very first time, in a long time, I thought that this must be a golden opportunity for the truth to come out.

In 2001, the commission returned TC and Joe Steele’s case to the Court of Appeal. And once again, they were released on bail.

But as the court date approached, a relationship built over the past two decades, broke down. 

John Carroll, Solicitor. So everything essentially was done. The grounds of appeal were all prepared. And I think we were about six weeks or so to go to the final hearing. Mr Campbell decided that what we were seeing, probably, as far as he was concerned wasn’t enough. But at the end of the day we had to withdraw from acting for him.

While John Carrol continued to represent Joe Steele, TC found a new solicitor.

Aamer Anwar, Solicitor for TC Campbell 2004: You had all these connotations in your head.  Of who this individual is. Everything that he’d been through. The background, the violent background that he’d had. But when he’d smile…when he’d speak, he was extremely gentle with you. And…and he was clearly well-read. The word for him was justice. And it was also justice for the Doyle family. And he truly believed that.

To stand a chance the appeal court the commission required new evidence. The focus fell on challenging testimony given by police officers.

Steele had supposedly said, ‘I’m no’ the one that lit the match.’

While TC’s confession was more complicated.   

Aamer Anwar, Solicitor for TC Campbell 2004: There was a Professor Clifford, who was a psychologist. And he looked the words that four police officers had said.

Crucially, Police officers admitted they’d not even written down the statements.  Until later on the same day. 

Aamer Anwar, Solicitor for TC Campbell 2004: It was found that unless you were a trained actor, and you repeated those words and repeated those words, the idea that four police officers come together and separately can write in their notebooks the exact words, even though two of them, I understand, said they wrote them later on, was impossible.

17th March 2004.

John Carroll, Solicitor.  I was conducting a trial opposite the Appeal Court.  So I wasn’t allowed out of that trial for more than about 15 minutes.   

Aamer Anwar, Solicitor for TC Campbell 2004. The courtroom was packed.

Joe Steele [now] it was a crazy, crazy sight. My nerves were shattered man.

The Appeal Court accepted the new expert evidence.

That for the arresting officers to remember exactly what TC and Joe Steele had said was extremely unlikely…and that either man to have made such a confession to police would, in the judge’s words, have been remarkable.  

Douglas Skelton, Journalist & Crime writer. I remember the cheer that went up as soon as the judge said, ‘In our opinion this is a miscarriage of justice’. 

Aamer Anwar, Solicitor for TC Campbell 2004. The relief, the rush of knowing and Tommy turning around smiling. And just that…tremendous elation.

Marion Scott, Reporter, Sunday Mail. TC was holding court and pontificating in front of the crowds. And that was something Joe really didn’t do.

John Carroll, Solicitor. You feel flat. There is no exhilaration. I think this should never have happened, for example. This person should never have been brought to trial. And at the end of the day the only gratitude, the only satisfaction you get is that the correct decision was reached.

Joe Steele [present] Although we were delighted. We were still conscious in our head that the Doyle family were seeing that. I still think of that woman to this day, the whole family to this day. She was just a wee housewife. A scheme woman and they lost their family.

Garthamlock 2022.

Joe Steele [present] I put a brave face on and kid on things are alright. But you cannae get locked up all those years and not have something wrong with your head.

My missus will say to us, I dae a lot of pacing up and down the house and things like that, the way you do in prison. And I do all that kind of thing and she’ll say I’m hard work and hard to live with, but I get through it all, and I get by and all that, but there’s still issues with my head and that, mental issues, you know what I mean?

Nearly four decades on, only theories remain as who was behind the attack on the Doyle home

Presenter Q to Joe Steele. [present] Can you tell me who ordered it?

Joe Steele: Tam McGraw. It had taken me a long time before I even came out with that. You know what I mean? But why should I protect a fucking rat that put my life through all that and other people’s lives?

And I’m sitting there going, “Oh, I don’t know”. “He couldn’t have done it, he didn’t”. 

But aye, he ordered it. Better believe he ordered it.

Douglas Skelton, Journalist & Crime writer. TC always told me it was Tam McGraw who was behind it.  He was convinced it was Tam McGraw that was behind the fire.   But again, when pressed, when I pressed him for evidence, he really couldn’t come up with anything. It was just that’s what he believed.

Archie McDougall. Company Secretary, Marchetti (Bros).[present] When the murder trial started, the drivers were much more tentative. They were much more reluctant to take their vans out. Would you want to drive an ice-cream van if you thought there was any remote chance you might be murdered?

And, from that point of view, within I’d say two years, the business folded.

We literally could not get ice-cream van drivers.

I wouldn’t like to comment on who specifically lit the match, outside the Doyle family home, but I’m convinced in my own mind that TC was behind it.

TC died in 2019. He was 66 years old.

Tam McGraw died 2007. He denied any involvement in the murder of the Doyle family.

To this day, nobody has been convicted of the murder of the Doyle family.

In the early 1980s, Glasgow was a tale of two cities. While its leaders encouraged residents and visitors to see Scotland’s biggest city as ‘Miles Better’, refreshed with trendy bars and restaurants, its housing schemes became a battleground in criminal warfare. Gangsters found themselves fighting over an unlikely commodity – ice cream vans and the lucrative routes to be found in each of the city’s sprawling new schemes, such as Easterhouse and Ruchazie. The schemes housed thousands but gave them little access to shops, pubs or other facilities. With little alternative, ice cream vans thrived and evolved to sell a range of goods, making so much money that they attracted the attention of the city’s gangsters.

Competition was fierce and would escalate into violence, before becoming deadly on 16 April 1984. In the early hours of that morning, a fire engulfed a top floor flat in Bankend Street, Ruchazie, a three-bed apartment housing nine members of the same family. That family included Andrew Doyle, a young ice cream van driver who had received threats and intimidation in the months leading up to the fire. Six members of the Doyle family, including Andrew, would not survive the impact of the fire. Their ages ranged from 53 years to just 18 months.

It was, in its time, the greatest mass murder in Scottish history and led to an inevitable demand from the media and public for the police to find the killers and bring them to justice.

Featuring testimony from police officers, members of the ice cream business and reporters from the time, each with their own connection to the case, episode one examines how Glasgow’s tough housing estates had developed into an environment where ice cream van routes had become prized possessions, before revealing the lengths some were prepared to go to in order to secure them.

Eyewitnesses describe events around the deadly fire which engulfed the Doyle family home and the days after, with the beginnings of the police investigation and a funeral which moved many across Scotland

The summer of 1984 saw a criminal investigation which gripped Scotland in the aftermath of the fire that killed six members of the Doyle family. The police’s efforts to find those responsible would lead to one of the biggest trials in Scottish history, with seven men in the dock. In the end, just two, Thomas Campbell and Joe Steele, would be convicted of murder, despite doubts over the strength of the evidence against them.

The next decade would see one of the most dramatic campaigns for justice in history as both men fought to keep their case in the public eye. Their campaign would raise questions about the methods employed by police in order to secure convictions. Hunger strikes and no less than three prison escapes combined with the efforts of lawyers and writers on the outside would, in 1996, see both men released on bail, pending appeal. That appeal would fail though, seeing Campbell and Steele return to prison. With both refusing to accept parole, and, by definition, guilt for the crime, it was expected the two men would be forced to fully serve their life sentences.

The formation of a new criminal commission and the revelation of new expert evidence would change that. In 2004, 20 years after they were convicted, Thomas Campbell and Joe Steele were released from prison with their case declared a miscarriage of justice.

The case has left many issues unresolved. Nobody has subsequently been convicted, despite persistent rumours about who really ordered the arson attack on the Doyle home

Imagine, BBC 1, BBC iPlayer, Douglas Stuart – Love, Hope and Grit interviewed by Alan Yentob, Director Linda Sands


Shuggie Bain, the 2020 Booker prize winner, was Douglas Stuart’s debut novel. It has sold around 1.5 million copies worldwide. His follow-up novel, Young Mungo, is also set in the Glasgow of Stuart’s birth and follows a gay son trying to hang on to the coattails of a mum that is lost to drink, but sometimes finds her way home.


Readings come from the big hitters of Scottish culture. Lulu, who’s been there and done it and is doing it again, did a terrific reading from Shuggie Bain. Val McDermid, who has written more books than the Bible and sold more than Douglas Stuart, spoke about the sinister elements that make Young Mungo’s apparent friendships with St Christopher and Gallowgate nauseating even for a thriller writer. Alan Cumming, who followed a similar trajectory, from a small Scottish town to worldwide queer icon also contributed.


It’s better to be a stupid cunt than a dick. Discuss? The problem of dialect. There is something miraculous about Douglas Stuart’s success because it happened twice. His alcoholic mum died when he was sixteen. He was still at school, yet on the verge of homelessness. But he wasn’t good at school. The only thing he was good at was art. Yet, he somehow, with the help of his art teachers, got a place in the Royal College of Art in London. He went from there to work as a chief designer for Calvin Klein in New York. He tells us how most folk couldn’t place his accent. In other words, they couldn’t patronise him.


Class matters, let’s not kid ourselves. Douglas Stuart is a success story by any measure and he did it the hard way. It’s one of those unbelievable stories that rich people tell to show anybody can do it if they work hard enough. To show how rich people aren’t rich because they are rich, but because they are innately talented. Fuck off.  


When travelling from the meatpacker district to the fashion capital of the world, Stuart had thirty minutes every day to write. He wrote about his mum. He wrote about people he knew. He wrote about Glasgow. 1800 pages that haunted him. Every writer needs a reader. His husband was first in line. There’s humour when they speak about it now. He annotated the text, ‘No Douglas. No. NO. NO.’ I like that. They wouldn’t speak for days. Goin fuckin yersel is ner easy.


Darren McGarvie Poverty Safari’s success story mirrors Douglas Stuart’s but in localised form. McGarvie is used as the authentic voice of working-class lives for programme makers who have come to gawp, but claim to understand. Let’s be honest. We all hate the fuckin Tories and it’s not all location, location, location. Facts have never mattered less. We lost the propaganda war. These guys tell it how it is. If you’re on a pedestal, the Glasgow thing is to knock yeh aff.     

Here Before (2021) BBC2, BBC iPlayer, written and directed by Stacey Gregg.


Reincarnation isn’t such a big deal if you’re the Dalai Lama, Buddhist, or many other religions that believe the afterlife comes back to haunt you, but for ten-year-old Megan (Niamh Dornanin) in contemporary Northern Ireland it could be problematic. Her parents, a young couple, Chris (Martin McCann) Marie (Eileen O’Higgins) have moved next door to Laura (Andrea Riseborough), Brendan (Jonjo O’Neill) and their teenage son, Tadhg (Lewis McAskie). That’s the set up.

I followed a series on Prime in which young children recounted former lives to disbelieving parents that gradually came to believe the impossible.

Don’t Look Now based on a Daphne Du Maurier short story, and starring Julie Christie and Donald Sutherland did something similar in Venice in 1973.

In 2010, Rabbit Hole, Nicole Kidman plays a mother whose child is killed in a car accident, much the same as Laura and Brendan’s daughter. Birth, also having Kidman in the key role of the grieving mother, takes a step backward, or forward when a young boy claims to be the reincarnation of her former husband.

Stephen King’s Pet Cemetery starts with grieving parents bring back their cat to life and then their daughter.

Shakespeare, the dead such as in Hamlet, walk and talk. A poem in the Scottish dialect, I read at school had much the same theme. A grieving family praying that the drowned would return.

What I’m implying is there are lots of ways to go with this. Laura (Andrea Riseborough) the mother carries the burden of making the incredible credible. It’s her we watch to carry the viewer over the threshold of the invisible. Grief can be bent into many shapes. Laura starts as sceptical as us, but convinces herself that there’s probably nothing in it. Megan is like her daughter, but she’s not her daughter. A brilliant performance.

It works for me, but then I began to lose the thread of the plot. The denouement baffled me. I got it intellectually, but…where was the motivation or moving force? You tell me.         

The Secret Genius of Modern Life, BBC 2, BBC iPlayer, presenter Professor Hannah Fry, Series Producer, Eileen Inkson and Director James Howard.

1.1 Bank Card.


My dad never owned a bank card. I’m taking it for granted if he didn’t, my mum didn’t either. He got paid in cash, a brown envelope (not so) full of notes and coins. A slip of paper inside with the amount paid and tax deducted. The bank card seen off hard cash. With many banks closing, used mainly by elderly customers, elegies to the bank card is a bit like a fondness for phone boxes. Cash is no longer king. Neither are bank cards. But I love bite-sized programmes like this and would binge watch each episode.

Bank cards keep the score. The old trick in the book for economics – what money was or is? The Gold Standard was easy to understand. A precious metal with scarcity value. Banknotes were issued to ‘pay the bearer on demand’. Shysters who shaved gold or precious metals from coins devalued the common currency and faced the wrath of the state. In those days, you were either hanged or sent to Australia. Most convicts opted for hanging. With all the unrest in the world, it seemed the surer option.

Professor Fry visits Visa’s European Data Centre. They monitor how money flows and look for energy spikes. These show where the shysters are shaving the common currency. Much like when searching for artificial intelligence from other solar systems harvest sunlight, but criminals harvest data. Professor Fry is shown online reviews from the dark net of how good, or indeed bad, the criminal elements are. Five-star reviews paid in cryptocurrency.

Cryptocurrency doesn’t really exist. It does not have the backing of any one government, it cannot guarantee to pay on demand to the holder, yet it has bled into the money supply. A bit like the moron’s moron, the 52nd President of the United States continually claiming he’d more wealth than he was worth—so he could borrow, or leverage, more—which is zero. A bit like saying he’d more rooms in Trump Tower, because nobody had got round to counting them.

The Bank Card has a lot to answer for. I’ve just loaded it with debt. Went off on a tangent.  I’ll be watching Professor Fry’s next programme. Worth a look.  

PTSD: The War in My Head, BBC 2, BBC 3, BBC iPlayer, narrator Iwan Rheon.


Who are you? What are you? A simple way of telling a story involves both elements. To be identified as a soldier tells who you are. Lt. General Harold G. Moore, for example, proudly claims in his New York Times Bestseller, We Were Soldiers Once…And Young.   But it doesn’t tell what you are. The moron’s moron and Chief Commanding Officer of the United States Army, for example, was not a draft dodger, or conscientious objector like Muhammed Ali, for that takes courage of conviction. When you’ve no morals or convictions it’s pretty easy to claim to have a spur in your heel that stops you from walking properly and tell other poor fools to fight in Vietnam. George Bush, Junior, who did manage to steal an election using the Supreme Court and some chads as cover, claimed he was a recovering alcoholic. There were no physical ailments to mark him out as different. After the fall of the Twin Towers and what is referred to as 9/11 it would have been very difficult for an American President not to invade a small country. The Commander in Chief convinced Tony Blair the British Prime Minister to support his dubious claims of weapons of mass destruction and invade Iraq. In comparison, in the sixties, Prime-Minister Harold Wilson body-swerved supporting Lyndon B. Johnson’s veiled threats and diplomatic request to send British troops to help with the invasion of Vietnam.

Two of the dumbest Presidents in modern history, both commanders in chiefs. Ironically, we’re back here now with war in Ukraine. Afghanistan abandoned to the Taliban. Iraq dismembered and hundreds of thousands of lives lost. For what?

Who are you? What are you? This is the story of the three of these soldiers who fought in these wars. Listen carefully. When does the army’s duty of care begin and end?

Cost cutting under the false flag of austerity means that Tobias Ellwood, a former British officer and reservist, rehashes the Minister of Defence’s rhetoric about their duty of care, while quietly shifting the responsibility onto the NHS. The same NHS which the Tory Party has been attacking and underfunding and trying to privatise, while not admitting to such, because that would be political suicide of the Truss variety. British soldiers with mental health problems and suicidal thoughts would be uninsurable under such a scheme. And if you listen closely, Kevin Williams also developed testicular cancer, which he joked about to his sister of only having one ball. But he was under thirty. He might be a statistical outlier. What remains largely invisible and neglected as mental-health care in a world of crude propaganda of good versus evil is the armour-piercing shells and bullets we use are radio-active afterwards. Cancerous. Tens of thousands of Afghani and Iraqi children born and unborn are the unread litmus tests. Kevin Williams may have been a victim of friendly fire in more than one way, if there is such a thing.

The programme chooses to finish with those that made it to the other side. End on a high note. It’s a story of hope. But I’m not buying. A story of continued neglect would be nearer the mark.     


This film tells the stories of three British soldiers who died in 2018 following lengthy battles with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). John Paul Finnigan from Liverpool, Kevin Williams from London, and Kevin Holt from Doncaster were in the same regiment, 2-Rifles, which served in Iraq and Afghanistan.

John Paul Finnigan, who died aged 34 and Kevin Williams, who was 29, took their own lives.

Through personal videos, voice notes, interviews and letters, this film reveals the private battle these men fought with their mental health.

While candid conversations with soldiers’ friends and families, document how their illnesses affected those around them.

As pressure mounts on the MOD to admit that they missed cases of PTSD in the wake of traumas experienced by soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan, the film raises serious questions around the whole culture of mental health care in the army, which the Minister for Defence, People and Veterans, Tobias Ellwood says he is trying to change.

I need to unscramble my thoughts and get myself back together piece by piece.

3 soldiers who died, not the battlefield last year (2018) but in their own homes.

Commentator: These soldiers died after long battles with PTSD.

Kevin Holt 1988-2018.

Jess Holt. Kevin’s sister. He used to play outside building forts with those little green soldiers.

Kevin Holt (filmed by BBC 3 in 2012). I joined up because I wanted to get out of Lancaster. And obviously, when I were little, I watched a few Rambo film and that. Hmmmm.

Jess Holt [JH] He tried to join the first time, but they wouldn’t let im. Because he was far too skinny. He had to get those protein [drinks]. He never stopped eating.

Kevin Holt grew up in a big family. The only boy with four sisters.

JH. He was very full of himself. He always thought he was god’s gift. If you asked im about himself he’d say he was invincible.

KH: To be honest, I just wanted to be…get out there. Like get out on tour.

When Kevin joined the army, Britain was already at war in Iraq. He completed his basic training and went straight to Basra.

Kevin Williams 1988-2018.

Jennifer Williams [JW] Kevin’s sister. The family’s reaction to Kevin joining the army was not the best. Em, on the one hand, we saw it as a very honourable career choice.

Kevin Williams [KW own footage] Here we are Rifleman Williams the owner of this camera…And we have Rifleman Collison, say ‘Hello’ Rifleman Collison.

JW: I would definitely describe my brother as being not a mature 18-year-old. He’s definitely a boy. He wanted to join as soon as possible. Say, 15 and nine months, or whatever it was. So he basically, he broke my parents down until they said finally, yeh, we’ll sign the papers.

Rachel Kaden,  KW’s close friend,

Rachel Kaden met Kevin years after he left the army. She’d go on to make a documentary about him.

Rachel [looking at picture of him] I always remember him talking about meeting the Queen and serving in the army at 16. And one of the girls I worked with said I think he makes all this stuff up. You can’t join the army at 16. I remember feeling so angry. And I was never going to let Kevin know this and I searched the internet. And found a picture of him meeting the Queen. Just so I could go in the next day and say, hmm, he’s not a liar. See!

KW deployed to Basra on his 18th birthday.

John Paul Finnigan 1983-2018.


Steven Finnigan [JP’s brother]

SF. We did have a difficult upbringing. Don’t get me wrong. We never really had any real inspiration where he was going. But once we seen he was joining the army, we just seen this glow in him.

Leah Finnigan [JP’s ex-wife]

LF: Me and JP were 18 or 19 when we met. And it wasn’t a magical love story. It was just 2 friends and we fell in love. And, yeh, it was that simple.

[footage of their wedding]

LF: we decided when he got his dates for Iraq, OK, let’s get married. We got a formal wedding. Then it was straight onto the party. And drunken dance and Karaoke. We got Karaoke.  He/We just wanted to have fun.

Letter to family from JP in Iraq 20/11/2006 [read by SF his brother]

Don’t know if you’ll get this, but I’m writing it anyway. I’m missing everyone at home and the wife. I’m missing Leah much more than I thought I would, but hey things must go on. I got hit by a Chinese rocket. 25 meters away. A bit too close for comfort.

Lee Harding was one of JP’s best mates in the army. He lived near him in Liverpool and they served in Iraq, alongside Kevin Williams.

LH: It was just the ferocity of the contacts we were in. It was relentless. The minute we got there to the minute we got home. It was constant.

[Commentator] One day JP was out fixing the Bulldog fighting vehicle he drove. When they came under attack.

LH: 12 mortars from 6 different locations in the city. JP was out of the wagon and it landed no more than a couple of feet away. 

It burst JP’s eardrums. But at the time, you literally, laugh it off. Out there you have feelings. You don’t get hurt. Everything gets buried, deep down on you.

Commentator: In fact, JP was left with ringing in his ears. He later got diagnosed with an ear infection. Which left him with life-long hearing problems.

Commentator; [transition]

Keven William was in the same company as JP.

KW’s personal video.

Believe it or not I’m in a fucking place. Where most folk are being fucking killed.

Commentator: For 7 months the battalion endured daily attacks. They lost 3 young soldiers.

Jennifer Williams [JW] Kevin’s sister: When Kevin was in Iraq, he did lose one of his best friends. And that hit him really hard. Because Kevin is the type of person, when he likes you, he really likes you. And for him to call this person ‘his best friend’, it’s like more than a brother to him. 

Commentator: Aaron Lincoln was killed when out on patrol in 2007.

Footage from RKaden: KW speaking: I lost possibly the closest friend to me that served alongside me. He wanted to leave the forces. I convinced him to stay. And no long after he was killed.

Commentator: Kevin Halt was on tour for one month in Iraq, but what he saw in that month was to shatter any illusions he had about life of the front-line soldier.

Jess Holt. Kevin’s sister

One of the things that stuck with him most in Iraq was he went on patrol, and he saw this little girl, she must only have been about 3 or 4, and she was obviously in distress, really hot and dusty. And he gave her a bottle of water. Went on his patrol. Came back the same way. And they’d hung this little girl, cause she took the water from, obviously, a soldier. And they didn’t like that. But he always blamed himself for that. It really got to him.

Commentator: After any active tour, the army gives its soldiers a few days away before coming home. They call this period: decompression.

KW’s personal video, army base, Cyprus.

Daniel Holleran was friends with JP and KW and served in Iraq with the Rifles:  They basically just left us in the camp. And they’d a container with crates of lager and cider and everything you wanted.  We’d a bit of R&R in the daytime. Where we could go jet-skiing or paragliding. That was the joke, get out of bad habits before you get home and batter your wife.

Tobias Ellwood is the defence spokesman for veterans. He’s a veteran himself, who is still a reservist in the army.

TE: the decompression period is actually very important. What we didn’t want was them going from the violent arena, where they’ve seen things. Witnessed things. Or being aware of lost colleagues or so forth. Going straight back to seeing their families. Taking them to another arena such as Cyprus, were we have military bases there. They’re still together as a unit, but it’s not an operational environment. You have psychologists. You have padres there which offers the pastoral care, which allows people to start thinking, reflecting on what they’ve just been through. And being able to vent and share concerns. And so forth. Move on. Have something else. A bit of distance between what they’ve endured, before they meet their families.

KW’s personal video, army base, Cyprus:

Totally pissed.

TE: I’m not aware of huge quantities of alcohol. If that is the case then it’s a breach of the rules. And the controlled programmes that we’re trying to…eh. Have in place.

Commentator: KW’s struggle with mental health pre-dated his first tour. Unbeknown to the army, he had attempted to take his own life before he had joined. But after Iraq, he was diagnosed with a new condition. PTSD.

Filmed for BBC 3 in 2012: KW.

Mostly anger. At one stage I smashed up my room. Turned the TV over. Everything. And I don’t even know why.

PTSD is an anxiety condition that can occur after experiencing a frightening or distressing event.

Shirley Holt (KH’s mum).

2007, he got diagnosed with the condition.

He was bad for it. An he were bad from word go. As soon as he came home. You could always tell when he were gonna have an episode cause his eye used to change. I can’t explain it, but they do. Load of change.

Commentator: In the army, KW was given mental-health treatment. Including a period of hospitalisation in late 2007. The army makes judgement about who can handle weapons and go on tour based on mental as well as physical fitness. But Kevin assured medics he was able to cope.

Official report: Rfn Holt reported that he would like to soldier on.

   2009. KH deployed to Afghanistan. Where Britain had been at war for 8 years.

Jess Holt. Kevin’s sister

JH: He wanted to go to Afghanistan. He was obviously nervous. A bit apprehensive about it. But he had this mindset where he wanted to go. Not to make things better but…it just…get it done.

KW [personal video]: The last tour were Afghan, we spent 7 months there and my role were the valour man? Obviously, it’s just you holding a metal detector (mine sweeping) and you’re detecting any metal content in the IEDs.

Commentator: IDs, improvised explosive devices were responsible for most deaths and injuries for British soldiers in Afghanistan.

On the 10th July, KH’s company was out on patrol. When a series of ID’s were triggered.

JH: I remember the day it happened. He weren’t supposed to be ringing. He were supposed to be like radio silence in the camp. But he rang my mum. I remember answering the phone. And he as just…He was crying. And I was like er, trying to get him to say what’s the matter? He were like, just put mum on. That was when we’d found out, he’d er…what had happened.

Commentator: 5 soldiers died that day. Including JH’s best friend James Backhouse.

JH: For him it wasn’t the initial explosion that kinda got to him. It was er afterwards. Picking all the bodies up. We can’t even imagine. The stuff of nightmares. He was an overthinker. It got to him. He just couldn’t shut it off. His head just couldn’t move on from that day, really.

Commentator: KH had been leading the patrol with a metal detector. Despite his feelings of guilt. The MOD recognised him as faultless in the incident. He even received a citation for his bravery. For continuing to search the area for further ID’s after the explosions. 

BBC 3 film, KH: Lot of people on the platoon, deserved it more than me. Everyone. . .

Commentator: The events of that day would cut short KH’s dreams of an army career.

KH: At first I were keen. I wanted to step up the ranks. The thing that stopped me being keen were seeing people I lived with, I worked with, that I care about, like get hurt. Or die.

Commentator: KH was discharged from the army at his own request.  But this was later converted to a medical discharge. In acknowledgement of his PTSD.


Commentator: JPF couldn’t go to Afghanistan in 2009 because of the problems with his hearing. Instead, he was given a role in a welfare unit in England. In practice, this meant ferrying the families of the dead and injured flown back from Afghanistan so they could attend the repatriation ceremonies.

Leah Finnigan [JP’s ex-wife]:He had all these people in the back of his car. Taking them to hospitals or pick up the well…the dead. He felt guilty. He should have been there. In Afghanistan. He didn’t want to be driving the families. The guilt. The injury. That would have caused the trauma if he’d never done the tour. That’s when he started to shut off his emotions, actually. When he was ill. Really ill.

Commentator: Kevin Williams did not deploy to Afghanistan. He’d been discharged from the army in 2008. The year after he got back from Iraq, the recreational drug use increased. His sister believed by that time he wanted out. When she’s visited him on base in the UK a few months earlier, it was clear things were going badly wrong in his head.

Jennifer Williams [JW] Kevin’s sister: One of his friends actually pulled me aside. Aidan said, ‘I’m worried about Kevin.’ I went…OK… I was, he was saying he’d cut himself and he’d written some message in his own blood on the walls.  And so I broached  the subject with Kevin. And he was like yer, I did do that. I just had a bit of a meltdown. And he said that he was given a card to call a number to get help. And I asked him, ‘did you call the number?’ And he said ‘No’.

Well, you really need to call the number.

Commentator: It would be years before KW was diagnosed with PTSD. After his dismissal from the army he returned to his family home. But his increasingly erratic behaviour was difficult for his family to deal with. Or understand.

JW. It was quite a scary time for us, with KH in the house, cause he would have rages. All of a sudden a fist would go through the door.  So my mum arranged for him to see the doctor to try and get help. He was very clearly depressed.

Commentator: eventually KW got a diagnosis of PTSD through a veteran charity. And his friend Rachel, started making a documentary about him.

Kevin Williams – This is Me. A film by Rachel Kaden 2016.  

KW: Returning to civilian life was a big shock. The skills I learned, especially being in the infantry regiment was all combat based. So civilian life doesn’t really have much combat. I was pretty much, you know? Useless.

Commentator: KW began communicating with Rachel through voice notes. They provide a unique insight into his battles with PTSD. And are broadcast here for the first time.

KW: 7/3/2016. For some good reason I believe the battle field will be my home?  When I’m in conflict, I’m a nicer person than when I am not. You know, when I leave the house today, I just want to hurt everyone. You know when I’m in combat, I’m like, I don’t want to hurt you. I don’t want to hurt you. You know I don’t want anyone to get hurt. And I think, this is where I’m coming from.

Commentator. John Paul Finnigan was medically discharged from the army in 2010 because of his ear injury.

Steven Finnigan [JP’s brother]

Like when JPF came back to Liverpool, we found it very hard to get him out of his rut because he was in denial of what he was and was in denial. He’d fly off the handle. Fighting all the time.  He was like a yo-yo, basically. He’d go up and down with his moods.

Leah Finnigan [JP’s ex-wife] I told him, he needed help. And he went to the doctors and got CBT

Commentator: CBT (cognitive behavioural therapy) is the key treatment for PTSD. It requires the sufferer identifying the emotions driving their behaviour. In JP’s case he was asked to start writing this down.

JP (read by SF] I’ve been diagnosed with PTSD, depression and anxiety which leaves me low and at a loss. Tight, on edge, unsettled. When things happen my heart races. My chest feels tight. My muscles tense and I go stiff. I usually lash out at walls and doors. But this still has affected my relationship with my wife and child. 

Commentator: But JP found it hard to keep following the therapist’s instructions at home.

LF: He wasn’t doing the techniques. They teach you techniques to do at home. But he just wasn’t doing them. And that’s not the way it works. In the end, it killed our marriage. It was the PTSD that done it.

Kevin Holt

To be honest, after I got out the army, that’s when like all the help stopped. An I were just like going down. From there.


Commentor: After Kevin Holt was discharged from the army he moved back to Doncaster.

KH’s mum: He got a job in a kitchen place. He told them he had PTSD. They said they understood that and they’d have a quiet word. But it only lasted a week. Thought everybody were talking about im. So he got paranoid and he went on er sick.

Commentator: Kevin was given every available treatment for sufferers on the NHS. Including CBT and counselling. But his inability to talk about his problems was a barrier to the treatment working.

KH 2012: Everything I’ve been to, I feel it hasn’t really helped…I don’t really like talking about things…  That’s probably why.

Commentator: Tobias Ellwood agrees they struggled to get the right support, when they leave the army.

TE: We must make sure they get the right support. Nobody is left out. They must be slid across to the civilian operation. And given the support they needed. And it’s taken a little time, because this whole mental-support mechanism has grown and evolved. I go back to the fact, we’re dealing with a very macho environment. And sometimes there’s a reluctance to admit that there’s an issue. And that’s part of what the NHS now needs to do. Make sure they ask the right questions so they can provide the right support.

Commentator: The solution he says lies in specialist training for GPs. And new NHS units tailored specifically to veteran care. For KH help came in another form.

KH Mum: He just wanted to settle down and have somebody. And kids. He always wanted kids. Whatever girlfriends he had couldn’t cope with his PTSD. So we got him a dog. The veteran charity helped train Kevin with his PTSD.

KH sister, JH: The thing that helped him most was Dash. That dog was like his kid. It was trained to lick him and wake him up when he was having a nightmare. I think having the responsibility of having to get up and look after something else. And having that routine back. Was important for im.  

Commentator: To add to his struggles, Kevin was diagnosed with testicular cancer. During his treatment, he moved into a caravan next door to his mum.

JH: He used to allow his paranoia and phases when he wanted to be on his own and shut the world out. But I think focussing on thinking about getting himself better from the cancer distracted him a little bit.

A few weeks before he passed away, he was…he’d come around for a drink. He was joking about losing one of his balls. That was just the sort of person he was. He didn’t let anything like that sorta bother im. It was the big stuff that got to him most.

KH Mum: He told me the day before he wanted to be by himself. And [I said] I’m still goin to make sure you’re alright. But he waved to me through the kitchen window. And he smiled at me. So I seen im the day before.    

Commentator: On 13th July 2018, KH was found dead in his caravan. The coroner ruled his death was by misadventure. KH accidentally overdosed on the morphine he’d been prescribed for his cancer. He was 30-years-old when he died.

JH: It feels like a massive blur. But I don’t think it’ll hurt properly. It looked like I said I lost my brother. But when he came back from Iraq, as much as I loved him and he was my big brother, he never really came home from there.


Commentator: Kevin Williams also struggled to find the right treatment for his PTSD. For him, Thai boxing seemed to relieve some of the strain. But in January 2018, things started to get on top of him.

KW voice note: 15/1/2018. I’ve been feeling very weird lately. My head playing games and everything else. It all plummeted at once. It was like I was supporting the bridge and all the suspension cables decided to fucking go off. One by one. Right after the other. It’s like I need to take a big step back from everything. And unscramble all my thoughts and my mind. And just get myself back together piece by piece.

Kevin Williams – This is Me. A film by Rachel Kaden 2016. 

RK: Well, he said it about the suspensions and the bridge. Just completely go. All I wish is I said, Let it all go. Come ere. I’ve got a spare room. Let it all go. Just come. Be still ere. So…hindsight is very easy to, er, make you think, isn’t it?

Commentator: Kevin’s final voice note was sent a week before his death. And he sounded back on track.

KW: 6/3/2018. 11/3/2018. Rachel, Rachel, Rachel, what are you doing today? It’s the tattoo artist again. I need your help. I’m going to look to book…

Commentator: On the 18th March 2018, KW took his own life at his own home in Basildon. He was 29-years-old.

Jennifer Williams [JW] Kevin’s sister: When people talk about PTSD in particular they talk about walking the black dog. And…I just think that is just a really lame way of putting it. And the reason I’m saying it is anyone can walk a black dog down the park. These are soldiers. They can walk in the park. It’s more like being chained to a dark wolf. That it trying to eat you, constantly. And you have to fight it every day, every minute, every hour. And sometimes you get a lucky punch. That wolf goes down for… a few hours. Maybe a day. Maybe two days. But eventually that wolf comes round. And that wolf is always there. You’re chained to it. So you can’t get away from it.  

Steven Finnigan [JP’s brother]

JP was just talking to me. And I knew something was up, just by his voice. And he said he was goin for a walk. Now, I knew where, he’d walk, you know. Know what I mean?

So I jumped in my car and shot down there. And he was standing out at the bridge and I beeped me horn and that startled im. And he was out of that vision of what he were goin to do. Instead, he was thinking what were that? You know what I mean? Where I’d that time to drag him back over and throw him back into me car. And don’t get me wrong, he was fighting me all the way. To do it, but…

Yer, he was fightin me all the way to do it, but… No. That’s not the way he was going. In my eyes, yeh, know what I mean? He deserved better than that.

Commentator: After JP’s marriage ended he met and moved in with Danielle Miller fiancee.

DM: JP’s sister said to get in touch, she was worried and to get in touch with her. He had been having kinda suicidal thoughts. To me it was a shock.

Commentator: Danielle’s mother had taken her own life. So she knew how it felt to lose someone to suicide.

DM: I did say to JP, you know how much I don’t  agree with suicide. And JP promised me, he did, er think about it. But he wouldn’t do it. It was kinda spur of the moment talk. And promised me he couldn’t live without me. His children. His family.

Commentator: But it was a promise he was unable to keep. On 27th May 2018, Danielle found JP’s body in the garden of the home they shared.

DM: I still don’t understand why JP done it. It’ll never leave. 

Steven Finnigan [JP’s brother]

Well, I felt hopeless. Because I was in a completely different country. An, I felt that he knew, I’d stopped im before. So with me out of the way, I’d no stop im, you know what I mean?

Leah Finnigan [JP’s ex-wife]

All day, every day, he suffered so much. And I…My heart breaks that he wasn’t able to get the help he needed. He shoulda got help. He shoulda. He shouldn’t have been up to im to ask for it.  It shouldn’t ave. That should have been given to him… It should be an automatic thing… It’s men and women… it’s so sad.

Commentator: After Afghanistan the army attempted to screen soldiers [eg video Expressing my Emotions – This is Belonging: Army Jobs 2018] for mental-health problems. But it wasn’t effective.

Instead the MOD is trying to change the whole culture in the armed forces. As this recruitment video shows.

Tobias Ellwood:

When I was in the armed forces, you were reluctant to say anything, you were intimidated. You were told to grab a mansuit and sort yourself out. Em, certainly, there was no recognition that there was perhaps that there was something there that might need attention. And if you dealt with it right away it wouldn’t incubate into something…worse. And eh, that’s what we’re trying to change now.

Commentator: But any change will come too late for combat, front-line soldiers of Iraq and Afghanistan.

Of whom 17% are suffering from probable PTSD. (source: KMCHR, October 2018 and refers to ex-serving personnel).

Commentator: Those sufferers include friends of JP. Men who fought alongside him. Daniel and Lee have both been diagnosed with PTSD. But it wasn’t until JP’s death, they faced up to their own thoughts to suicide.

Daniel: speaking about JP. I’d say he was one of the strongest soldiers. One of the strongest men I knew. Took his own life. But I understood why. I didn’t blame him. I didn’t judge him. To my shame, the first thought in my mind was he’s out of the pain now. And er, he hasn’t got all these things going round in his head. It was just complete and utter jealousy.

Lee: I didn’t know I was suicidal until you battle these demons and you feel numb.

Commentator: In the years since JP’s death, both have sought help.

Daniel: I’ve said it before and I’ll say it again, JP’s death gave me life. Something changed in me. From that day I put the drugs down and I went into treatment and I got better. It was all down to JP’s death. Give me my life.   

Lee: Just getting over that line to say I needed help was probably the hardest thing I’ve ever done. [Pictures of him with his wife and family, toddlers and baby]. Going back to therapy. That first session, was hard, really hard.

Commentator: The family and friends in this film had done so in the hope more veterans would have the courage to seek help.

JH:It was hard, the first week, I couldn’t even say his name, but it’s what he wanted. Baby Kevin Holt III. Now I’ve got a little mini Kev. I hope he’s not as naughty as Uncle Kev.

Deepfake Porn: Could You Be Next? BBC 1 Scotland, BBC 3, BBC iPlayer, presented by Jess Davies.

Deepfake Porn: Could You Be Next? BBC 1 Scotland, BBC 3, BBC iPlayer, presented by Jess Davies.


Mariam-Webster [online] dictionary.


deepfake noun

plural deepfakes

Definition of deepfake

: an image or recording that has been convincingly altered and manipulated to misrepresent someone as doing or saying something that was not actually done or said

Two artists and an advertising company created a deepfake of Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg saying things he never said, and uploaded it to Instagram.

— Samantha Cole

No law regulates deepfakes, though some legal and technical experts have recommended adapting current laws covering libel, defamation, identity fraud or impersonating a government official. But concerns of overregulation abound: The dividing line between a parody protected by the First Amendment and deepfake political propaganda may not always be clear-cut.

— Drew Harwell

With Mueller warning of future election meddling, [Representative Adam] Schiff said that one of his biggest concerns for future campaigns was the development of deepfake technology—the ability to manipulate videos or audio to change what a person appears to have said. ‘How do we prepare against the late distribution of a fraudulent video?’ Schiff said.

— Elias Groll and Amy Mackinnon

I watched this late last night. I had to look up what deepfake meant. Obviously, I knew what fake meant. The moron’s moron as President, who also was (I need to say alleged here) a rapist, is probably the prime example. And I knew what porn was or is. I have looked, but it’s not my thing. I’ll not be adding my two cents to Porn Hub’s billions of dollars annual sales.  

I kind of understand why someone gets off on videos of stars having sex, because usually they are very beautiful. I’m curious, which is often a gateway. But using words like ‘video’ shows how old I am. I don’t have or need a smartphone. And if there is such a thing as being objective,  I don’t have the time.

Deepfake Porn is another chapter in the Silicon Valley dictum of break things and move. The law won’t catch up, and is run by useless bureaucrats that don’t understand creativity is the usual crap sold to us as self-evident truth. And by the time it does, they’ll be entrenched with their pirate flags and cool vibes and have made billions.

The get-out-of-jail card is section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, introduced by Congress Representative Chris Cox from California and Senator Roy Wyden from Oregon in 1996, when most people thought porn was something you got from the top shelf of a shady shop in Soho, and the internet was something to do with geeks and creeps.

Section 230 does not mention decency or indecency. It does not mention morals or the trillions of dollars companies like Google, Facebook (now called Meta) or Twitter have a vested interest in maintaining as a baseline in what they term freedom.

‘No provider or user of an interactive computer service will be treated as the publisher or speaker of any information provided by another information content provider.’

In other words, content is yours. Profits are mine. Alex Jones, for example, was fined almost $1 billion for repeatedly lying that the mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School was a hoax. That figure for damages was based not only on the hurt to the victim’s families but also the profit he’d made by spreading these kinds of lies. He supported the moron’s moron who disparaged mainstream media by calling it ‘fake news.’

Algorithms, as we know, rule the world. Trump spent most of his budget on Facebook messages helped by bots from Russian sponsored hacks that alleged Hillary Clinton was corrupt and should be locked up, from other things, eating children and drinking their blood.

An Apple algorithm or App from their store can also take an image of a face and copy and paste it to pornography. It takes around eight seconds. But like anything else in technology it will get faster with better visuals and audio.  Mr Deepfakes, for example, gets 13 million hits a month. Usually those involved are in the public eye. But, for a few dollars, there was also a side-line in making fakes of someone you might know.

Kate Issacs #NotYourPorn, for example, supports women’s rights. Women should be allowed to say no. But they should also be consulted when and where their images are used. We’re talking consent. Of course her home address was shown online as was her workplace and phone number. Anonymous males felt free to threaten to rape and murder her, and encouraged each other to do so. In Alex Jones’s world freedom has no limits. But they had a new took in their armoury. Deepfake Porn images of Kate Issacs were used to discredit her, to shut her up, to terrorise her.

There was nothing illegal about that aspect of their campaign.  Research showed around 96% of deepfakes were pornographic. All of them (100% excluding statistical anomalies) involved non-consenting women.

Dina, a games geek, and typical girl next door, was surprised when someone showed her images of her having sex. Some of them were obviously not her. Her deepfake breasts, for example, were porn-sized big. She found out the faker was a work colleague. He agreed to take down the images, but wasn’t charged with any offence. He hadn’t broken the law.

 Florida state senator, Lauren Book, is trying to change the law in America as she has in her home county. She too has been a repeated victim of deepfake porn. It seems a no-brainer. But she’s got some of the biggest tech companies in the world lobbying for the status-quo, and self-regulation. You can’t take away their freedom, or you’ll lose your liberty. The meme usually hits those kinds of buttons. Not that we have buttons any more.

Deepfake Porn: Could You Be Next? Na, I’m sixty and an old guy nobody wants to look at or listen to. But I can’t say any of this surprised me. When truth is another commodity that can be bought or sold, everyone has a price. Women are seen as fair game.    

Harriet, BBC 4, BBC iPlayer, Writers Gregory Allen Howard and Kasi Lemmons, Directed by Kasi Lemmons.


There’s an old trick for a director to add a few lines of text and also claim credit as a writer. Harriet is about slavery. Black people were bought and sold like slaves (and still are). You’ve probably had a mental blip, because it’s clichéd. From Prince claiming he was a slave and changing his name to a squiggle during a contractual dispute with his record company. In contrast, Liz Truss being a slave to the market. Black Lives Matter means the opposite. Abraham Lincoln theoretically freed the slaves (apart from his own), but we’ve had Jim Crow laws, Emmit Till, the Vietnam War and the return of the Republican racist righteous Proud Boys to the Presidency.

Harriet Tubman (Cynthia Erivo) takes us back to her roots. The use of her first name singular suggests we are already familiar with the outline of her story. I wasn’t.


She is portrayed as a black Joan of Arc. A God-given strength to her mission. To free herself from slavery. Die or try. For most other blacks it was try and die. She reached freedom. One hundred miles of unforgiving territory stalked by slave catchers and dogs. Even blacks that sold their own kind and sent them back to their white masters. They’d probably vote for the moron’s moron, Trump.  Later it was 400 miles to Canada, even with The Underground Railroad, too far and too few.  But the small still voice in her head tells her where to go and when. She has fits. They are portrayed here as playbacks or play forwards of scenes from her life. These are linked to a blow she took on her head. For those of a scientific mind, the aura before epilepsy. For others, quite simply, miraculous. With God on her side, Harriet showed no fear. Slavery was against God’s law. It was all there in black and white played out in the American Civil War. Harriet, a black woman, who also led black troops into battle. It’s to step out of time. Two steps forward and two step back. Worth a look.  

Big Oil v the World, BBC iPlayer, Editor Ella Newton,Director Jane McMullen, and Series Producer Dan Edge.




Your children are going to die. Here’s why.

‘We must not only go to zero emissions, we must actually remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere’ (italics around text are Peter Wadhams (2016) A Farewell to Ice).

‘As we inflict violence on the planet to the point of mortality, we inflict violence on ourselves, to the point of our mortality. A dead planet will result in dead people, and a people and/or its leaders who are psychologically and/or ethically desensitised to the consequences of this Terran violence have no chance of long-term survival.’



Role Contributors:

Director Jane McMullen

Series Producer                Dan Edge

Editor Ella Newton

1) Denial 2) Doubt 3) Delay.

The story of what the fossil fuel industry knew about climate change more than four decades ago.

Scientists who worked for the biggest oil company in the world, Exxon, reveal the warnings they sounded in the 1970s and early 1980s about how fossil fuels would cause climate change – with potentially catastrophic effects. Drawing on thousands of newly discovered documents, the film goes on to chart in revelatory and forensic detail how the oil industry went on to mount a campaign to sow doubt about the science of climate change, the consequences of which we are living through today.

2022 is set to be a year of unprecedented climate chaos across the planet. As the world’s leading climate scientists on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issue new warnings about climate change and the soaring cost of fuel highlights the world’s ongoing dependence on fossil fuels, this series details exactly how we got her

Narrator. For more than 150 years, oil and gas has played a critical role in our society. Improving human lives. Raising standards of living. Enabling unprecedented economic growth.

What do you do when you learn that the product you make threatens the entire planet?

More than 40 years ago, oil industry scientists warned that burning fossil fuels would cause climate change.

What are we going to do?

This is the story of how big oil went on to fool the world.

They realised it was going to be an existential threat to their business, but they made a deeply unethical decision.

They lied.

This campaign of denial brought thirty-odd years’ of profit at the expense of the planet.

Part 1. Denial.

This film is based on a year of investigative research, over 100 interviews and thousands of newly discovered documents.

No executives from ExxonMobil or leading industry groups agreed to be interviewed.


New York.

Ed Garvey. Took the best graduates. When they offered me a position in their research department, to me it was a really good fit.

Salary $18 600 which in those days was a lot of money for somebody fresh out of school.

They wanted to become an oil company. They were flush with funds. The oil companies were doing really well in the seventies. So they wanted to move into other fields related to energy. The project I worked on was ‘bluesky’. Research for the sake of doing research. They weren’t going to make any money out of it.

For somebody 22 or 23, I was really happy there. It was a great place to be working.

[paper from Exxon]

Proposed Exxon research programme to help assess the greenhouse effect.

Presented by myself, Edward A Garvey, Henry Shaw, Wallace S.Brocker,  Tara Takahashi

Columbia University, 26th March 1979.

Programme goal: Use Exxon expertise and facilities to help determine the likelihood of a global greenhouse gas effect.

Rationale for Exxon Involvement: Develop expertise to assess how greenhouse gas effects business. Form a responsible team that can carry bad news, if any, to the corporation.

There were uncertainties, but the uncertainties were when, how fast?

That’s what we were looking at. If we didn’t reduce fossil fuels in a significant fashion, we were going to be facing significant climate change in the future. 

Exxon knew. I can tell honestly, Exxon knew. I was convinced Exxon was doing this research to get a place at the table to be part of the solution. Not so that we could deny the problem.   

1982. The market is too poor. We can no longer afford this level of research. We’re going to keep the modelling team together. [Project on SS Esso Atlantic, C02 Greenhouse Project terminated]

I know they did some good work with Columbia University. But the place that I worked was gone.

When Exxon retrenched and sold off its lithium batteries, sold off solar energy.

These are all important lines for the company and you’ve just getting rid of them. You’re not trying to shrink them down.  We have to make do with a smaller budget. No. We’re gone.

Dr Richard Werthamer, Manager Exxon Research and Engineering 1979-1982.

Exxon wasn’t just the biggest oil company in existence, it was also the biggest company period, in existence. It did business all over the world. It was enormous. And the resources were gigantic. And it had a very good reputation.

Eg Exxon nucleur, photocopiers, solar,


Now we’re in 1982. And in 1982, oil prices dropped abruptly. The bottom fell out of the oil market. And Exxon was having a hard time staying profitable. And it began layoffs. One of the things that was dropped overboard was the tanker (monitoring greenhouse gas) project.  


Lee R. Raymond, senior vice president, oversight of research networks and engineering.  Raymond believed Exxon would always be an oil and gas company. It would never be anything else.

Professor Martin Hoffert.

Back in the mid-70s, I was working for NASA, it was a very exciting time, because NASA was sending probes all over the solar system. And the information that was coming back was very interesting. Things that we never knew. For example, we found out that Venus was very hot. That it was at least 700 degrees there and the most plausible explanation came from the composition of Venus’s atmosphere. This was almost 100% carbon dioxide.

It was a kind of unified idea in the terrestrial planets of our solar system that greenhouse gas was caused by high concentrations of carbon dioxide. At the same time, some research scientists were making the observations of carbon dioxide in our own atmosphere. We had seen this curve of increasing carbon dioxide becoming classic icon of the carbon-dioxide problem. We’re seeing it keep going on a few points per million every year. And we can attribute that to greenhouse gases, primarily, fossil fuel burning.

All of the models showed that the average temperature of the earth was warming.

The question came up, what are we going to do? Over 85% of our energy was generated by fossil fuels.

And about that time is when I had the opportunity to work as a consultant with the biggest company in the world at the time. Exxon.

We ran computer programmes. We compared date with what nature was doing. And we compared our results with other results to see if there was a consensus.  Those papers would then get presented at meetings. And there would be this sort of brick-by-brick advance of how our system worked.

Everything that we studied was basically consistent with the finding that the earth was going to warm significantly.

And we were just trying to say how it would warm. I can only speak about the ER engineering group. Everybody accepted it. Roger Cohen completely accepted it. Roger Cohen (R.W.Cohen) was the manager of the group I was consulting for (Theoretical and Mathematical Science Laboratory, Exxon Research and Engineering, Corporate Research Science Labs, Director Duane G. Levine).

He passed our results on to higher levels of management. 2nd September 1982. Because he’s writing to his boss to what the guys are doing. Unanimous agreement in the scientific community, temperature increase of this magnitude would bring about significant changes in the earth’s climate, including rainfall distribution and alterations in the biosphere. Our results are in accord with most results in the field. [Metadata]. And are subject to the same uncertainties.

And here, he’s saying we should keep doing research because it can inform our decision. Our ethical responsibility to permit the publication of the scientific literature. Indeed, to do otherwise would be a breach of Exxon’s public position and ethical creed and honesty and integrity.

Cental China, 2021. [floods]

Austin, Texas.

Exxonmobil Archives.

Kert Davies, Climate Activist and Investigator

Sometime in 2000, Exxon gave their library to the University of Texas. Many truckloads of documents. Perhaps it was a PR effort to show this company has a proud history. And it’s all transparent. It’s all in the library.

And so, it was a revelation when these two teams of journalists, one from Inside Climate and News and another publishing in the LA Times, uncovered documents showing how deep the conversation was about climate change within Exxon.

By the nineties they were the kingpins of denial. We had on idea they actually knew the science. I’ve become a curator of documents. The evidence from the documents is that many of the industrial sectors were studying this independently.

Members of the auto industry, including General Motors. The Electric Utilities. The Coal industry. 

But Exxon had a deeper programme.

[filmed interview in 2005 with Lee R. Raymond, Chairman and CEO, 1993-2005 ]

Q Alternative fuel. There was a time in the late seventies, when your company said, is there an alternative fuel?  So we don’t have to burn fossil fuels and put all that CO2 in the atmosphere.

A: We were the first oil company that really spent a lot of money looking at all that.

Q And the results were what?

A None of these technologies and we looked at everything. I mean we looked at…But none of these technologies were going to be competitive against oil.

Q Financially competitive?

A Right.

It’s amazing. It’s a call to action. They’re realising it’s going down. We need to be in the room talking about uncertainty and downplaying the urgency. That is the call.

There focus is to try and emphasise uncertainty.

And we can show that they pretty much did that in the following years.

David Harwood, aide to Tim Worth 1986-1993


The year climate change moved from science journals into the realms of public policy. I was a 26 year old in the Senate office. He said you want to work in the environment, because that’s where all the action going to be.

Senator Worth said I want to write a piece of legislation that addresses global warming. The first person I reached out to was Dr Hansen (James E. Hansen) Goddard Institute for Space Studies at NASA.

My response was pretty immediate. This is a big deal. We need to get working on a hearing.

February 1988, Seattle and other parts of the North had their driest February in history.

March 1988, reservoirs 45-80% below normal levels.

By the spring of 1988, there was a full-scale drought.

April 1988. The earliest fire season in memory.

It was my perception that the media wanted to explain this drought. And seemed to be at a tipping point on the issue of climate change.

 Greenhouse effect and global change (23rd June 1988).

There was a buzz of the hearing transcript—historic.

[Mainline news report] cut to:

Some experts are saying the whole world is heating up because of a global greenhouse effect.

The implications for every human, every animal, every plant on earth are enormous.

New York Times (24th June 1988) graph. Front page. ‘Sharp Cut in Burning of Fossil Fuels is Urged to Battle Shift in Climate by Philip Shabecoff.

Talking heads on TV. There are no easy solutions. We’re talking about gas and coal and oil.

It was as if the rocket had lifted off.

Cut to:

Pragmatists would argue we cannot change our energy habits overnight. Scientists say we better get going.

I felt tremendous progress was being made eg. Earth Day Rally, 1990.

There was greater awareness. There was public policy emerging. There was international negotiations developing

Cut to:

Margaret Thatcher: ‘The problem of global climate change is one that affects us all. We can’t just do nothing.’   

Professor James Hansen.

A lot had changed between the middle nineteen- seventies when we first got interested in the problem and the nineteen-eighties. The late nineteen-eighties. Because the real world was beginning to show signs that human were affecting climate. That implies we’re really going to get a significant change a few decades down the stream.

The evening before I was lying on my bed in Washington [1988] writing my testimony and listening to the Yankee’s baseball game. And I wrote my testimony out by hand.

I do think scientists have a moral obligation to point out the implications of their findings and try and do it as clearly as possible.

Senate Hearing, 3rd June 1988.

I would like to draw three main conclusions.

i)The earth is warmer in 1988 than any time in the history of instrumental measurements.

ii) That global warming is now large enough that we can ascribe, with a large degree of confidence, a cause and effect relationship to greenhouse gases.

iii) Our computer climate simulations indicate that the energy is alone large enough to begin to affect the probability of extreme events such as summer heat waves.

Altogether it presents a very strong case that the greenhouse effect has been detected and it is changing our climate now.

Tim Wirth, Senator (Democrat) 1987-1993

Our climate is changing very dramatically. And it’s time for us to start acting on it. We were probably one of the first to bang away at it.

Congress Hearing before the committee on climate

I had a sense it was going to be a good hearing and his [Hansen’s] statement would be important. You could feel it in the room. That this was a significant moment.

That was a kind of magical sentence. This was not some environmental group or cabal. This was probably the leading climate scientist in the federal government making his statement.

It kinda opened up the world. And you could feel this feeling of wow. This is really going to change. But the minute targets and timetables began to appear then they were magic signals to the industry. Oh-oh, this is serious.

We didn’t know how devastating the counterattack would be.

Dr Terie Yosie, Vice President Health and Environment American Petroleum Institute (API)

I’ve collected documents from every place I worked. My basement looks like a trash bin and fire hazard but neverthess.

Cut to:  earlier appearance before

The API was at that time tremendously influential. It was the chief lobbying organisation for the petroleum industry. And had representation from some of the major oil companies. Exxon. Mobil. Chevron. Shell. BP. Companies like that.

By early 1989, the newspapers and television were bombarding API with questions such as what do you think of Hansen’s testimony?

What is your view of climate change in general?

What do you think needs to be done about climate change?

The decision was made that a briefing needed to be made for industry CEO’s.


Global warming the knowns and unknowns:

By Dr Terie F. Yosie Presentation before the API Executive Committee, January 1989.

There is scientific consensus that the atmosphere is changing due to human activities. Greenhouse gas concentrations are rising.

There are three schools of thought that characterise the public debate over global warming;

One that reflects API’s thinking is was by a scientist Patrick Michaels  article in the Washington Post,

[Climatology: The Greenhouse Climate of Fear]

‘Our policies should be no more drastic than the scientific conclusions they are based on. And at present, the problems with the computer models… and the temperature histories…

Pat Michaels was not a major voice in the debate about climate change. But I think he was useful to the industry as an external voice of doubt. [useful fool]. Creating more scepticism about policy-makers taking action.

In that vein, API must become an active participant in the creation of policy debate. We’re well on our way to doing that.

We must make policymakers fully aware of the uncertainties surrounding the global-warming issue.

API statement to programme maker:


The API told us critics were ‘cherry-picking information from decades ago to support a misleading pre-determined narrative’ and as climate science has evolved, so has the industry.

Al Gore Vice President 1993-2001.


Bill Clinton introducing Senator Al Gore of Tennessee. Running mate working on environmental challenges we desperately need to address. Together we will finally give the US a real environmental Presidency.

You were in the White House. Do you feel a sense of responsibility?

Absolutely, that’s why I ran the ticket to run. But that was the principal task I set for myself entering the White House. And I went to work right away.

Cut to:

Clinton speech:

Today I announce our mission to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases to their 1990 levels by the year 2000.

Professor Patrick Michaels.

I’m not a—and I hate this word—I’m not a denier.  I’m a look-warmer. Totally different. People get that wrong. The look-warm view. Which means climate change is real. People have something to do with it. But it’s probably not the end of the world. I’m probably a look-warm libertarian too.

Cut to:

Young Professor Michaels, Environmental Science appearing on CNN.

There’s a real problem with global warming apocalyptic projection. The earth may, in fact, be going in the other direction.

And until we solve that problem we should not take expensive measures based on renaturation.

John Passacantando, Executive Director, Ozone Action, 1992-2000.

When Clinton/Gore were elected there was widespread hope. But the honeymoon just didn’t last long. I remember seeing in the press this sceptic S. Fred Singer saying global warming wasn’t a problem for the planet (Environmental Hysteria: The sky is falling! The ozone is depleting! Over-regulate business! Spend Money! Spend Money! Spend Money!)

Cut to news headline:

A respectable body of opinion in the scientific community believes that any climate warming is as likely to be as beneficial as harmful.

First Fred Singer. Then Patton(?) Michaels. You start to think, who are these people and where are they coming from. Oh, interesting. They’re funded by Exxon foundation. The coal-fired powered utilities. Western Fuels Association. Global Climate Coalition.

And they’re funding climate deniers.

Eg John Shales, Executive Director of Global Climate Coalition. We are not an ad-hoc group.

But it consisted of every major manufacturer that produced or consumed fossil fuels. And every major company that was in the fossil-fuel industry. And so it’s a considerable coalition of business interests.

The Global Climate Coalition is seeding doubt—everywhere.

Fogging the air with these counterarguments that are contradictory.

Nonsensical. And environmentalists don’t really know what’s hitting them.

[ from Donald L. Rheem II, media representation for GCC]

You want to make an assumption it’s a meritocracy. A good argument will prevail. It will displace a bad argument. But what the geniuses of the PR firm that worked for these big fossil fuel companies know is that truth has nothing to do with who wins the argument.

If you say something enough times, people will begin to believe it. 

David Harwood, aide to Tim Worth 1986-1993 US government Climate Change Advisor 1993-97.

You saw that he had worked on tobacco. A number of other issues. He was a specialist in denial. I thought that’s odd. I was aware that this emerging industry of naysayers was growing. This effort to cast doubt. 

You had reams of material coming from the government. (eg US Department of Commerce: National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA]) at NASA) This expanding network of people working on this day in and day out. Saying this was a legitimate issue. (eg. Estimates of Warming Grow More Precision And Warn of Disaster). And we needed to do something about it. 

Ontheotherhand you had two or three that went around to conferences and said ‘I’m not sure!’ ‘Oh, maybe there’s clouds.’  (eg Global Warming, Republican Study Group. I’d like to show you some satellite images from the 1970s until now (next slide). Nothing.

Terry F. Yosie, Senior Vice President, Harrison PR firm.  

The Global Climate Coalition put out a bid for a contractor to provide communication services. I’d left API in the late spring and I’d came over to the Harrison firm for public relations.

(Our client list includes 80 of the Fortune 500 listed companies)

Developed exclusively to environmental issues. I was asked to be part of the pitch team because I was well known in the petroleum industry.

10th August 1993. Communication Proposal prepared for the Global Coalition [E. Bruce Harrison Company]

Scientists, economists and other noted academics carry greater credibility among media and general public than [fossil fuel representatives]

Communication efforts should be directed towards expanding the platform towards third-party spokespersons. You recruit that person. You pay that person. (350 000 plus people) to give a speech or write an op-ed.

The Global Colition would do the background work of placing that ad, or maybe editing it (eg Nashville Banner article 21st April 1993 by John R Christy ‘Let’s cool the rhetoric about global warming’.)

Don Rheem, Global Coalition Account Manager, Harrison PR firm 1993-97.

I was brought in to specifically to handle press relations for the global climate coalition. A lot of reporters were assigned to write stories. They were struggling to deal with the complexity of the issue. So I would write backgrounders so reporters could read them and get up to speed.

(Provide primers: global climate coalition: eg Science and global climate change: What do we know? The Uncertainties).

I met some really brilliant climatologist and meteorologists. I met Pat Michaels (Patrick Michaels). He struck me as someone who was very smart. He loved talking about this issue.

(eg. Article: The popular vision of climate apocalypse is wrong’.)

Q Have you any late night worries that you were being played by a vested interest in delaying action, blocking action, creating doubts in the public?

A The background I was writing. The communications I was conveying for the GCC was not a popular narrative. There’s no question about that.

There was a lot we didn’t know at the time. Part of my role was to highlight that. 

Professor Patrick Michaels.

Q What was your relationship with the Global Climate Coalition?

A Oh God. Not much.

Q You were on their scientific advisory board?

A Yeh, what does that mean? I don’t think we ever had a meeting.

Q I’d say you did?

A We did?

It wasn’t much of a relationship at all. When you bring up GCC, I think, wait a minute, who were those guys?

Q How did the funding you received from the fossil-fuel industry impact the work you were able to do and the work you undertook.

A Didn’t what I do. What I think.

Q How much do you think you received from the industry?

A I don’t know.

Q You feel that in a way you were sort of used by them…that you were…?

A… no I was using them. You got that wrong. What, I mean, I’m somewhat verbal and I like to write and I have an overestimation of my ability to… sense of humour. But can you imagine someone giving you loads of money and telling you write whatever you want in two weeks? We had a blast.

(eg. Article: Is there any warming? While there are only 15 complete years (1979-93) satellite data to compare with ground-based data…)

(eg. Hot Air)

(eg. Climate Overkill)

(eg Greenhouse Effect: Fact or Fiction?)

We weren’t doing what we were told. We were doing what we wanted.

(eg Climate Cover-Up)

(eg Benign Greenhouse Gas)

Cut to:

California 2018: Wildfires.

Cut to:

1995. Update: Warming Up.

Charlene Hunter Walsh has that story: It’s warmer than ever and last year set a record. And that’s what British meteorologist today.

Cut to;

BBC News. The Met office says the last 12 months have been the warmest since records began in the seventeenth century.

Cut to:

We have ice slowly melting. We have sea levels rising.

Dr Ben D. Santer.

World Meteorological Organisation/ United Nations Environmental Programme. Intergovernmental Programme on Climate Change. [IPCC]

We knew in the 1990s but IPCC says it’s too soon to tell definitely.  Whether there is or is not human cause for global warming.

Five years later, a very different finding.

People at different institutes, using different statistical method, models, formally identified a human cause of global warming. 

This was a paradigm shift in scientific understanding of the reality of human effects on climate.

I was 40 years old. I’d spent one-and-a-half years working at lead author for chapter 8, (Detection of Climate Change and Attribution of Cause) the IPCC’s second assessment report. 

We were in plenary in the beautiful Palacio De Congresos De Madrid. Some of the [fossil fuel] industry scientists were involved in the process.

Eg. H.S. Khesgi was there from the beginning of our work right through to the end.

The GCC and the Saudis and Kuwaitis dominated the plenary sessions. Then if you say something is uncertain, then it can be overturned.   

Which led to these heated exchanges. Because uncertainty is an irreducible part of climate science.

The notion of uncertainty you can’t say anything useful about anything is preposterous.

There were these extraordinary back-and-forth discussions and my job was to implement those changes. We had discussed and agreed upon.

Eg Climate Change, Prepared by Working Group 1 The Science of Climate Change 1995 by all countries in Madrid was 12 sections [but could be summarised in one sentence].

‘The balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate’. 

Madrid was a triumph of the science. The science won. It was a big deal.

Cut to:

News headline Global Warming. Hi I’m Jo-ey Chan: An international group of scientists we can blame ourselves for global warming.

Cut to:

ABC News. Global Warming. 2500 scientists from around the world have finally agreed with one another. And burning oil and coal is causing the world’s temperature to rise and which may bring with it environmental disaster.

Cut to:

Certainly gives more ammunition to those that believe government should oversee the fossil fuels industry and move away from…

In retrospect those 12 words were the handwriting on the wall (experts agree).

What happened next was the GCC came onto my radar screen. In the spring of 1996 they published this report.

‘The IPCC Institutional Scientific Cleansing’.  

They were arguing I’d purged all uncertainty from the document. Which was patently untrue. Twenty percent of chapter 8 was specifically devoted to the discussion of uncertainties.

‘Changes quite clearly have the obvious political purpose of cleansing the important information that would lead policy makers and the public to be very cautious, if not sceptical, about blaming human activities for climate change over the past century.’

I had grandparents who were cleansed because of their religion during the Second World War. People were being cleansed because of their religion in Bosnia. And the GCC threw this odious scientific [jibe] I was guilty of a crime.

‘These revisions raise very serious questions about whether the IPCC had compromised, or even lost, its scientific integrity.’

Folks were calling for my dismissal with dishonour from my positon. A gentleman intimated that I was about to be indicted by the Hague International Court of Justice for ‘falsification of international scientific documents’.

I was in a fight for my professional life.

It was a very lonely place.

This attack on individual’s decency. Their integrity. Honour. Involved high, personal cost. And the GCC knew what they were doing.

Sow those seeds of doubt and watch them grow and mature. And they did.

Don Rheem, Global Coalition Account Manager, Harrison PR firm 1993-97.

There’s a level of detail here I don’t remember. But I do remember the gist of this. Where things were said at one point in the process and then they disappeared the next. And that struck me as troubling. And so I noted that to the folk in the GCC.

Cut to:

Report by Dennis Wamsted, 22nd May 1996. ‘Revision to key report understates climate change uncertainties.’

‘rewritten without proper authority’

This stuff caught on like wildfire.  

Eg Patrick Michaels (Bait and Switch: IPCC pares down the consensus) devoted substantial time to amplifying the GCC’s allegations. Others picked up that report and repeated bits of it. Things became worse when (The Wall Street Journal 12th June 1996, A Major Deception on “Global Warming”) Professor Frederick Seitz wrote and op-ed in the Wall Street Journal. I was accused of the worst abuse of the peer-review system in Professor Seitz had seen in his sixty years as a scientist.

Q That document set in motion a number of public attacks on the leader of that chapter. (Ben D. Santer). He was particularly shaken by the idea he was guilty of scientific cleansing.

A Yeh, that wouldn’t be terminology by the way I would have used. What other used and how it was used was outside my control. My purview. It troubles me to hear it had such an impact on an individual. That’s not something I would want to do to anybody.

Kert Davies, Climate Activist and Investigator

Up until the mid-90s, until he became chairman of the board (Exxon) Lee Raymonds is an ardent denier.

Cut to: Lee R Raymonds (Chairman of Exxon) speaking on CNN. ‘The scientific evidence remains inconclusive as to whether human activities affect the global climate’.

And here he is absolutely refuting what his own scientists know. He’s saying it’s so uncertain. We should research it. But we shouldn’t take any action.

Professor Martin Hoffert, Exxon Climate Consultant 1981-87.

What’s the date of this? Is it 1982? No this is ’96. [laughs] I’m just flabbergasted by this. ‘The unproven theory’… this policy if implemented has ominous economic implications… yet scientific evidence remains inconclusive as to whether human activities affect global climate. It’s just total baloney. This person should never be CEO of an energy company.

I think it’s outrageous he should say such a thing, because he has a world class climate and carbon cycle research group. In his own lab ( Exxon Research & Engineering lab c1978). He could pick up the phone and ask one of the people in that group if that statement was true and they would tell him that it isn’t.  He’s using something that is a lie to justify a policy that is bad for the world.

I’d have to say on an ethical basis it’s actually evil.

I think he should be ashamed of himself. And I think he should apologise to the world for saying that.

Lee Raymond did not respond to our request for an interview or statement. Until his retirement from Exxon-Mobil in 2005, he continued to deny human-caused climate change.

Exxon-Mobil told us ‘it’s public statements about climate change, are, and always have been, truthful, fact-based, transparent and consistent with the contemporary understanding of climate science.’

Al Gore, Vice President 1993-2001.  17th March 1995, talking on CCN.  [George Washington University]

Two weeks from now, this issue of climate change will be discussed by more than 120 different countries in Berlin.

I wanted the USA to lead the world to agree on a set of global initiatives and policies.

The US is committed to reaching 1990 levels of emissions by the year 2000.

The question was who goes first.

It was in no way possible to get a global treaty with the proposal that the poorest countries in the world would have to take the same obligations as the wealthy.

That was the formula the world agrees as the only way to make progress.

Cut to John Major speech. We will be calling for cuts to between five and ten percent less than nineteen nineties’ emissions. 

Cut to Kyoto, Japan.

Clinton and Japanese PM. Did agree on caps…

But the fossil fuel companies took that feature of the agreement and they made that a bit more politically salient issue which they used to great effect.

David Harwood, aide to Tim Worth 1986-1993 US government Climate Change Advisor 1993-97.

We said the US is committed to targets and timetables. I mean that was obviously a massive threshold for us to cross.

Cut to: Berlin 1995 Conference. UN Convention on Climate Change.

The idea was that those who had developed the most and contributed the most historically to the problem should step up to the plate first in the effort to reduce emissions.

I feel that the Clinton-Gore administration wasn’t able to deliver on the promise of American leadership.

The door closed for the next ten years. So it was a significant missed opportunity.

John Passacantando, Executive Director, Ozone Action, 1992-2000.

This is the strategy of the grand fog.

Cut to: GCC film October 1994-December 1995.

A plan by PR firm Harrison after Berlin. Prepare for the GCC, 11th July 1995. Third-party recruitment, op-ed placement, new emphasis on economists.

There are firms they can pay who will say, you know, ‘Solving global warming will cost lots of jobs, will be higher energy costs’.

This is the next layer of fog.

Paul M. Bernstein. Charles Rivers Associates.

In 1996, I finished up grad-school.  Accepted a job with Charles Rivers Associates. We were doing work for the US petroleum institute, so they had a particular point of view. If the US goes ahead and reduces its emissions, and countries like China and India don’t do anything, the US puts itself at a competitive disadvantage. To try and put numbers on what those damages would do. How much they would hurt. I think it’s important. Right.

Eg: World Economic Impact of US Commitment to Medium Term Carbon Emission Limits.

[Jan 1997)

I wrote a couple of papers on our findings.

I had a general surprise about how much attention it got. It was finding its way into the airwaves.

There was great pressure from the clients to talk about jobs.

We tried to tell clients we really can’t measure jobs accurately. But, you know, you have to get paid at the end of the day. So, we ended up doing the best we could: Talking about jobs. But you know. You don’t really know [if they’d asked to talk about leprechauns and rainbows they’d have measured them in pots of gold].

I’d misgivings about telling half the story, right?

What do we get if we reduce emissions? We get less damage from climate change, right. We’re not putting that in there.

Yeh, I wish I weren’t a part of that. Looking back. Delaying action.

Clearly, I was on the wrong side of history.

Cut to John Shales on CNN, GCC Executive Director.

If we’re talking about jobs we’re talking about probably five, six, several hundred thousand jobs a year.

Neither API or Charles Rivers Associates responded to questions about their work together.

Andrew Card, Auto Manufacturers Association.

It would wreck the US Auto industry and it would wreck the economy.

Cut to: William O’Keefe, American Petroleum Institute on CNN.

Every independent economic study has come to the same conclusion. The impact is negative. And it’s going to cost jobs.

Cut to:

Hurricane. Louisanna 2021 Exxon forecourt of petrol station.

News report. 18 weather-related disasters with a total of $1 billion each. Now scientists warm these natural disasters could push the nation’s infrastructure to the brink.

The IMF’s job is to spot the economic dangers that lie ahead. It believes that climate change is one of them.

November 1996, Grand Hyatt hotel, Washington DC.

Please welcome our chairman, Lee Raymond. American Petroleum Institute [applause]

A United Nation’s effort it moving towards a decision in 1997. The continuing use of fossil fuels based on the untrue theory that they effect the earth’s climate. So it’s critical that we in the industry provide a voice of common-sense on this important issue. So we must continue to work for more unity and cooperation. One example is our close cooperation with the automobile industry. We recently became engaged in the global climate issue and are active as hell. 

Cut to:

Kert Davies, Climate Activist and Investigator

In the rush to the Kyoto Protocol there’s a massive effort to stop it. To kill it by industry. They know this is the big fight.

So this is a page from a briefing document and the title is ‘The Dilemma for Congress’. ‘A draft resolution is attached for your consideration’.

John Passacantando, Executive Director, Ozone Action, 1992-2000.

Cut to caption, example: ‘Hot Air Cold Truth.’

You’re seeing these ad campaigns. Denial- ad-campaigns. TV ads. Print ads. (eg.The U.N. Global Treaty isn’t Global: Americans will pay the price.) There’s op-eds. Millions and millions of dollars’ worth of advertising.  

Questioning why the US is obliged to do more than everyone else.

It’s not global. And it won’t work.

And everybody sung from the same song sheet.

Then, out of nowhere the Senate issues this Byrd-Hegel resolution that passes 95-0. Once there’s an international treaty it has to come back to be ratified. 

In a nutshell, the Byrd-Hegel resolution said the Senate wouldn’t sign on. It just put a storm cloud about negotiations even before the meeting began.

S.Res 98

25th July 1997

Senator Chuck Hagel, bipartisan position is rejects a proposed new global climate treaty.

So the American Manufacturers Association [draft 7th May 1997] is putting forth, I think, [Sense of the Senate Resolution on Climate Change] to pre-emptively kill the Kyoto Accord. 

Chuck Hagel (Nebraska) Senator 1997-2004 (Republican).

I wasn’t going to support a treaty that bound this country that would affect our economy and everything else, when we didn’t have the absolute scientific evidence. First of all, to prove it. And secondly, and maybe even more important, to let all these other countries off. That was my position then. It may be my position now.

Cut to:   25th July 1997

‘If anything has become clear during congressional hearings on this issue, it is the science is unclear. Is that the scientific community has not even come close to definitively proving we have a problem.’

I’m not a scientist. I’m not a climatologist. I listened to a lot of people. I asked for a lot of opinions. I had scientists coming in. I’d other people come in.

Q What were they saying to you in those meetings? And did you learn anything that helped to shape your views?

A Well, they made their case. They made their point. I wasn’t surprised by anything I heard.

Q You met Lee Raymond? CEO Exxon Mobil. What relationship did you have with him?

A Well, Lee Raymond was a South Dakota boy. I remember that. I didn’t have a close relationship with him. But I listened to him. He was head of the largest oil company in the country. I listened to everybody’s opinions.

You mean the Byrd-Hagel Resolution, they didn’t draft that. That resolution was decided by us, by the Senators.

John Passacantando, Executive Director, Ozone Action, 1992-2000.

Q We’d unearthed documents that showed a series of meetings and briefings that Chuck Hagel received.

[passes transcript]

A Oh, wow.

10th March 1997, Memo from Brenda Hart, America Petroleum Institute Lunch. They’re hosting and going to brief him.

[Scientists don’t have a precise understanding of this issue]

Doubt. Doubt.

24th July 1997. Meeting with Ford.   Automobiles Manufacturer’s Association.

Aluminium Association.

Chemical Manufacturer’s Association.

I’m emphasising Senator Hagel. But this is happening all throughout the Senate.

It was just an unbelievable mess. He did broker a deal. And got as much out of Kyoto as he could have.

But we were not going to get steep cut out of a global agreement with all the industries fighting against them.

Cut to;

News: Delegates from the US and another 149 countries have approved the treaty known as the Kyoto Protocol. 10th December 1997.

The US industrial lobby now says any deal will be blocked in the USA.

Tim Wirth, Senator (Democrat) 1987-1993. Undersecretary of State and Lead Climate Negotiator 1993-Nov 1997

Cut to:

News coverage. Dec 1997. Vice President Gore is on his way to Japan to attend the Global Warming Summit. The goal of the conference is an international treaty to protect the environment.  But so far it’s been hard to find anything that can be agreed on.

I think Byrd-Hagel destroyed any hope of getting anything done in Kyoto.

The Administration went against the Byrd-Hagel resolution.  The Clinton Administration certainly didn’t want to go into open war.

Kyoto 10th December 1997

Cut to Al Gore’s speech.

To those who seek to obstruct we say: We will not allow you to put narrow special interests about the interests of all humankind.

Al Gore.

They won the battle. I was intent on them not winning the war. It became clear to me at that point that it was going to be a longer war.

25 years later.

[voice over]

It is unequivocal that human activities are responsible for climate change. That’s the finding by a new study by the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on climate change.

A dire warning and a stark reality. The head of the UN referred to this as ‘Code Red for Humanity’. 

Global temperatures are the hottest in 100 000 years. And many of the effects of climate change are already irreversible.

If we want to avoid catastrophe we have to drastically cut emissions- now.

I think it’s the moral equivalent of a war crime. I think that it is in many ways the most serious crime of the post-world-war-two era.

The consequences of what they have done are just unimaginable. 

Chuck Hagel (Nebraska) Senator 1997-2004 (Republican).

Q We now know that Exxon was making a concerted effort during the 1990s to cast doubt, even though their own scientists were telling them climate-change science was sound. Do you feel that you were misled?

A Well, what we now know that some of these large oil companies positions. They lied. And yes, I was misled. Others were misled. When they had evidence in their own institutions that countered what they were saying publically. I mean, they lied.

Q If they had said that—held their hands up—and said, yes, this is real. Could it have been different?

A Oh, absolutely. It would have changed everything. I think it would have changed the average citizen’s appreciation of climate change. And mine, of course. It would have put the US and the world on a whole new track. And today we would have been so much further ahead than we are. It’s cost this country. And it cost the world.      

October 2021.

Congressional Hearing on Big Oil & Climate Disinformation.

My name is Darren Woods, I’m the chairman and chief operating officer of Exxon Corporation.

‘Exxon-Mobil has long recognised the climate change is real. And poses serious risks. But there are no easy answers. I’m not aware of any unique understand of what we had in the science. We engaged with the broader community and worked with them. To advance our own understanding. And as time passed and scientific understanding evolved so did our position.

Cut to: James Hansen?

I’m 83 years old. Three or four decades ago, we predicted it. As a scientist having those predictions come true that’s sort of the golden icon you look for.   However, as a human being, and an inhabitant of the planet earth, I’m horrified.

To watch the lack of response to this. I’m trying as much as possible  to distance myself emotionally

Q So you’re angry?

A Yes, I’m furious.

Cut to: Ed Garvey

It’s heart-breaking to me. I saw all of that potential. At least in that point in time, to really solve the problem in many different ways.

Had Exxon begun to pick up the ball and began to lead, the discussions would have been about how to do it? We had solar scientists doing research. We had research chemists doing battery research. Think about how important these sciences are to the world currently.

Parts of the world have suffered enormously. Unnecessarily so. And for something we could have done something about. Not doing anything for decades. That’s just…squandered time and we’ll pay for it.


Big Oil v The World. Series 1.2 Doubt.

Even as the science grew more certain, the oil industry continued to block action to tackle climate change in the new millennium. In a revelatory interview, Christine Todd Whitman, George W Bush’s former environment chief, tells the story of how the industry successfully lobbied President Bush to reverse course on his campaign promise to regulate carbon emissions.

Tensions grew between two of the world’s biggest oil companies, ExxonMobil and BP, after the latter publicly called for action to tackle climate change. The election of Barack Obama provided hope for supporters of climate action, but the billionaire Koch brothers made an effort to block the new president’s attempts to pass climate change legislation, and climate denialism became the mainstream position of the Republican Party. A lawyer who worked for Kochs through this period speaks on camera for the first time.

DirectorGesbeen Mohammad
Series ProducerDan Edge
EditorBrad Manning

Q What do you do when the product you make threatens the entire planet?

Cut to:

More than 40 years ago, oil industry scientists warned that burning fossil fuels would cause climate change.

Cut to:

Ms. Ocazio Cortez: This is a model from 1982, with startlingly accurate projections Mr…

A That’s correct.

Cut to:

This is the story of how Big Oil went on to fool the world.

Cut to:

Al Gore.

They realised it was going to be an existential threat to their business. But they made a deeply unethical decision.

Cut to:

[talking panellist] I don’t think science is settled. How could it be?

Cut to:

Climate sceptics and denialists were in a positon of strength. In every decisive fight, we had won.

Cut to:

[speech made by President George W.Bush jnr. We don’t know how fast climate change will happen. And even if some of our actions will

Cut to:

There was such a cosy relationshjp with the Whitehouse and the industry. They were sowing doubt. And truly casting aspersions on science.

Cut to:

Those decades of deception had created a delay in our understanding of the issue. That is irrecoverable. We can never get that time back.

Cut to:

UN says this is a code-red for humanity.


Kert Davies, Climate Investigations Center.

In 1998 there was this meeting in Washington DC. It was convened by the American Petroleum Institute. Exxon was in the room. Chevron. Southern Company. With various think-tank officers, communications, right-wing libertarian professionals. And they’re hatching a plan to stop people to stop worrying about climate change.

Now be 1998 there was a clear scientific consensus. CO2 emissions are causing global warming.

Action Plan, 3rd April 1998. Situation Analysis.

The plan is a wide-ranging to install uncertainty around climate science.  Sowing doubt around the science. Their targets include media. Members of Congress, schoolteachers, average citizens.

The [Action] Plan says right at the top ‘Victory will be achieved when recognition of uncertainty becomes part of the ‘conventional wisdom’. 

‘Unless climate change becomes a non-issue…’

They said that it was never implemented, but what it shows is intentionality. WE NEED PEOPLE TO NOT care so much about climate change.

They want to kill the science. They need uncertainty to rule the day.


Cut to:

Our country faces a big choice about the future. We are truly at a fork in the road.

Cut to:

With the help of environmental groups and industry, we will require all power to meet clean air standards in order to reduce emissions.

Cut to:

[voiceover] the new millennium began with a historical Presidential election. Both candidates pledged to tackle climate change. The Democrat candidate, Al Gore, had long advocated combatting global warming.

Cut to: Al Gore.

The big difference between us, I’ll never put polluters in charge of our government.

Cut to:

[voiceover] his Republican rival, George W Bush (jnr) was a former oil executive from Texas.

Cut to:

debate= Bush. ‘Global warming needs to be taken very seriously. And I take it seriously. Both of us care a lot about the environment. We may have different approaches.’

Al Gore, Presidential Candidate 2000.

During the campaign of 2000, Bush (jnr) put out a position paper and a speech saying he was all in favour of putting limits on carbon emissions.

And he was in favour of all kinds of government measures that dampened the sharp contrast [with me] that I thought was going to be very clear.


Voice over:

Whenever there’s a transition of power in Washington DC, there’s a great deal of talk about a change in culture as well.

Voice over:

Bush won the contest [he was elected] having promised to reduce the level of carbon dioxide.

Cut to:

Speech President Bush; ‘Governor [Christie] Whitman shows a consensus about environmental policy. EPA. She and I share the same point of view.

Voice over: Whitman at the Environmental Protection Agency, [EPA] to turn his pledge into environmental action.

Governor Christine Todd Whitman, Environmental Protection Agency Administrator 2001-2003.

I grew up on a farm. And when you grow up on a farm, you see the impact humans have on it. Very directly. I did a lot of things to improve things here in the state of New Jersey when I was governor. So it was a good fit from that perspective. We had talked about climate change before I accepted the positon.

We were the largest emitter. If we put a cap on carbon that was sending a signal that would give us the opportunity to work with the rest of the world. I thought it was very urgent. And the President agreed with me. We were on the same page. I thought this was our opportunity. We could really get it done.

Voice over:

Six weeks after the inauguration, Whitman prepared to travel to a gathering of environmental ministers. 

Governor Christine Todd Whitman, Environmental Protection Agency Administrator 2001-2003.

Before I went to my first G8 Environmental Minister’s meeting in Italy, I went to the Whitehouse and basically said, look I am going to say we’re going to put a cap on carbon. Because that had been in the campaign literature and I ran that all the way up the flagpole at the Whitehouse to make sure it was OK. And it was fine. Go ahead [I was told].

Trieste, Italy.

Cut to:

[news conference]

Whitman. ‘The President has acknowledged the importance of global warming and has indicated it’s at the top of his agenda.’

Cut to:

[voice over]

While Whitman was in Italy, the fossil fuel industry was pressuring the Whitehouse. Asking them to reverse course. Hayley Barber, an influential Republican energy lobbyist, had written to Vice President Dick Cheney,   1st March 2001, who was shaping the administration’s energy policy. The letter questioned whether the carbon-cap idea was ‘eco-extremism’.

And in the media, Think-Tanks funded by Big Oil, attacked Whitman and climate science.

Cut to:

Fox News, The O’Reilly Factor, presenter, ‘Global Warming: For Real?’ That doesn’t stop both sides swearing the heck they know what is going on.

: Cato Institute. Director of natural gas studies.

Jerry Taylor, Cato Institute, 1991-2014.

My objective while at Cato was to influence smart, engaged people. That the case against climate activism was far stronger than they realised.  I honestly, and in good faith, felt that the actions against climate action were far, far stronger. So that was my job. And I did it well.

For most people, if thinks are very uncertain, they’re not going to commit a lot of resources to address that uncertainty until it clears up. Debate is a performance art. I was pretty good at that. I was the good-communication gunslinger.

Governor Christine Todd Whitman, Environmental Protection Agency Administrator 2001-2003.

The administration was extremely close to the industry and those Think-tanks. When I returned from Italy, I heard some rumours that we weren’t going to go forward with a cap on carbon. So I asked for a meeting with the President and went over and met with him.

And it was a done deal.

In fact, as I walked out of the office after the meeting, the Vice President was just going by. And he said, ‘Have you got a letter for me?’

I didn’t know what letter he was talking about. He asked the secretary and he was on his way to the Hill. And he was on his way to the Senate saying, we’re not doing a cap on carbon.

Too bad, the rest of the world.

Cut to:

[voice over] The President claimed he’d dropped the plan because it would drive up the already inflated energy costs.

The announcement left his EPA chief, who had vigorously promoted the curb, twisting in the wind.

Governor Christine Todd Whitman, Environmental Protection Agency Administrator 2001-2003.

I was really blindsided. And I felt that backing out of that pledge and I was monumentally disappointed. Especially, in the way that we did. Essentially, flipping the bird to the rest of the world.

The industry is a great lobbyist.

Cut to:

[voice over] Vice President Dick Cheney had previously been at Haliburton, one of the oil company’s largest service corporations.

Governor Christine Todd Whitman, Environmental Protection Agency Administrator 2001-2003.

You got that feeling there was a pretty open door. That they had in the West Wing, Vice President Cheney, who was certainly not a believer in climate change doing much about it. The Vice President was industry through and through. And he was very persuasive in his arguments as were other Republicans on the Hill about how this was going to kill the economy. We needed more energy. We could not start to put a cap on carbon. And so there was just no appetite: economically, politically, or otherwise to go forward with a cap on carbon.

Cut to:

News report, VP Cheney?

Some things about the future we cannot know. Years down the road alternative fuels may become a great deal more plentiful than they are today. But we are not yet in any position to stake our life or our economy on that possibility. For years down the road this will continue to be true.

Cut to:   

[voiceover] 5 months into his Presidency, George Bush had adopted the oil-industry line of emphasising the uncertainties of climate science.

Cut to:


We do not know how fast change will occur. Or even how some of our actions could impact it.

Governor Christine Todd Whitman, Environmental Protection Agency Administrator 2001-2003.

It really was a tragedy. If President Bush had gone forward with a carbon cap it would have made an enormous difference.

Cut to:

[Newspaper headline] Whitman resigns as EPA administrator.

Cut to:

Tampa Tribune 23rd May 2003 –headline- EPA chief leaves ‘Thankless job’.

[voice over] the head of the EPA announce her resignation today. Christine Whitman said she wanted to spend more time with her family.

Governor Christine Todd Whitman, Environmental Protection Agency Administrator 2001-2003.

Once we’d gone through this debacle over the cap on carbon, there was no appetite for addressing climate change at all. That was it. We just didn’t talk about it. The industry was winning a lot of battles I was losing. Ultimately, that was what led me to leaving the administration. I wasn’t just going to be a rubber-stamp for industry.  I just had enough.

Cut to:

[news report]

To the weather now and it is awful

Cut to:

Soldiers are helping residents of Yorkshire to leave their homes.

Cut to:

Hurricane Opal. The ninth hurricane of this long season.

Cut to:

12 people killed by last weeks’ series of California storms.

Cut to:

History’s biggest merger created by America. This largest company created by Exxon and Mobil will be the biggest oil company in the world. 123 000 employees. $200 million in revenue. 47 000 gas stations world-wide. 

Cut to:

[voice over]

The Bush administration’s decision not to act on climate change was a victory for America’s oil companies. Especially, Exxon-Mobil. Its CEO Lee Raymond, was close to the Vice President.

Cut to:

[Dick Cheney]

Corporate citizenship award presented to Lee Raymond, 2003.

The Vice President’s address:

As chairman and chief executive of one of the world’s leading energy companies, Lee Raymond has helped improve the lives of countless people all over the world. And is head of a major science and knowledge corporation.  And Lee understands the importance of science and technology. The continued progress and economic growth both at home and abroad.  

Kert Davies, Climate Investigations Center

I’ve been investigating the fossil-fuel industry for decades. Exxon was a ringleader and they were at the centre of the campaigns that were around in the 90s and early 2000 to stall climate policy. Exxon had emerged as the real school-bully on climate change, headed by Lee Raymond who was a hardened denier.

Cut to: ExxonMobil shareholder meeting 2000.

[sceenshot] Lee Raymond on a podium with a backdrop of a petition signed by 17 000 scientists (Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine).

‘There is no convincing scientific evidence that human release of carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gases is causing, or will in the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the Earth’s atmosphere and disruption of the earth’s climate.’  

Question [from the floor]

I’d like to comment on the findings of the fact about the relationship between the burning of fossil fuels and climate deterioration. I understand that the corporation’s policy is at this time believes it is in the realm of the unproven. But I’d like to state from the broad scientific community this is a well-established fact.

A Lee Raymond:

There is no convincing scientific evidence that the human  realise of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases is causing or will, in the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the earth’s atmosphere and earth’s climate.

Neela Banerjee, Supervising Climate Editor, NPR. 

Lee Raymond kept hammering away at the idea of scientific uncertainty – even as the science grew more certain.

Cut to:

Lee Raymond,

There is a substantial difference of view in the scientific community as to what exactly is going on.  I can assert to you that I don’t think this is happening. My mind is open enough to say I’m going to listen to the science.

Cut to:

Bill Heins, Geoscientist ExxonMobil 2001-19.

I started working ExxonMobil 2001. It was one of the biggest corporations in the world. At the turn of the century they were making on the order of five billion dollars a year.  


Geo-scientist Bill Hines had spent years studying climate change before joining ExxonMobile. This is the first time he has been interviewed about his experiences with the company.

I’m disappointed. I’m angry. I’m disenchanted at the duplicity exhibited by ExxonMobil saying one thing, internally, and to say a different thing, with a much different consequence, in the political arena.

Cut to: Voiceover.

He’d been hired to use his expertise in climate change to help discover new oil deposits.

My ambition when I joined Exxon was to keep doing my science. And I was blown away, doing all kind of really interesting science at technical levels even that was happening in top universities. And not only was it appreciated, but it was for a reason. People need energy to live and we were providing that energy.

Cut to: Voiceover.

By now scientists are ExxonMobil had developed a deep understanding of how climate change worked. And were using it to their advantage.

This was real, fundamental science. Really, tore apart how does the earth work? And  climate is a really important part of that system. So you got to understand the system to drill for oil and gas. But there is this flipside. There is this dark side of the equation. The fundamental idea that we put CO2 in the atmosphere and that makes the temperature go up and that’s bad. Everyone understands that completely clearly.

Cut to: Voiceover.

Heins soon began to notice a contradiction between what ExxonMobil scientists knew and what the company management wanted to stress.

Shortly after I joined ExxonMobil there was a presentation by Art(ur) Green who was chief scientist of ExxonMobil exploration.  All the scientific staff were there. Art got up and gave his presentation about how ice-core records were unreliable. There were temperature excursions in the past when there couldn’t be any human influence. Here’s all these reasons why we don’t really to worry about climate change.

He didn’t clearly state it, but the subtext appeared to be that his bosses didn’t seem to be concerned that climate change was something to be concerned about.

There was a kind of stunned silence in the room. And ExxonMobil is a very polite place. In that context the reaction was quite remarkable. Translated in modern parlance, (as if) my children were explaining: ‘Are you fucking nuts?’

‘No, we don’t believe you. We’re scientists. We don’t want to hear this.’

I took that [dissent] as a good sign.

So, I thought, my scientific colleagues don’t buy into this narrative. And, so, even if that’s  what high levels of management believe, there are enough adults in the room to keep in a technically rational and sound forward path.

Now, when I look back with hindsight, I think, oh crap! That was really bad.

Cut to:


Most of the oil industry was following ExxonMobil’s lead. And casting doubt on climate science. But one major player had broken ranks.

Cut to:

John Browne, CEO BP 1995-2007.

BP, Britain’s biggest company, which prides itself on its green credentials.

Cut to:

I think the penny dropped with me when I took over as CEO, I realised we need to say that we are causing a problem and we need to solve that problem.

Cut to:

Stanford University 1997.

Ladies and Gentlemen, good afternoon,

Cut to, (news) Global Climate Change. [BP]

I believe we have come to an important of our consideration of the environment. It is up for the moment of change and rethinking corporate responsibility.

Cut to:

We had many discussions with the leading scientists. And it was very clear that there was a discernible impact on the climate as a result of human activity.

Cut to: news) Global Climate Change. 1997 [BP]

The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is rising. And the temperature of the earth’s surface is increasing.

Kert Davies, Climate Investigations Center

This is a remarkable moment, because suddenly we have this CEO stepping away from that circle of wagons or that camp, and saying, actually, we think we have to do something positive about this.

Cut to:

Headline. International Business: Yousief M Ibrahim (journalist) ‘Praise for Global Warming Initiative,’  [London 11th December 2007] ‘BP Nudges Reluctant Colleagues.’

John Browne, CEO BP 1995-2007.

The response by the oil and gas industry, I think the right word was ‘astonished’. Astonished  and very defensive.

Cut to:

Lee Raymond.

Kert Davies, Climate Investigations Center

Lee Raymond was furious with this. And the friction between him and John Browne. Between Exxon and BP was tremendous behind the scenes.

Cut to: [Exxon conference with Lee Raymond]

Because he had broken creed. 

John Browne, CEO BP 1995-2007.

Lee Raymond did not approve of what I had said and made it very clear to me that this was the wrong way to go. And that he pointed out as far as he was concerned, their mandate was to abide by the law and produce the maximum amount of profits based on the laws that existed at the time.

Cut to:

BP Promotional video.

Beyond the darkness, there is light. Beyond the thorn, there is the rose. Beyond ten seconds, night. Beyond power, responsibility.   Winter. Summer. Beyond darkness. Light. Beyond Petroleum.

John Browne, CEO BP 1995-2007.

We built a renewable energy business. We set up a special unit for that and we had a tag-line—beyond petroleum. 

There was, of course, this big suspended judgement. Was this for real?

Kert Davies, Climate Investigations Center

When the BP Beyond Petroleum launched there was a backlash about spending £200 million on the image-scrub [greenwashing] while spending less than a quarter of that on actual solar programmes.

Bill Heins, Geoscientist ExxonMobil 2001-19.

The BP green flower and the little logo, Beyond Petroleum derided and ridiculed in ExxonMobil.

When you talk about greenwashing that would be the operational definition. I thought it was smoke and mirrors. 

Hey, look at this sock puppet over here. We’re going to be green. And don’t pay attention to what we’re really doing.

Cut to:


John Browne, CEO BP 1995-2007.

People thought it was greenwash, but I don’t think that was the intent behind it. BP was fundamentally an oil and gas company. And it was in the process of transitioning. And a very slow, and long transition. But it started it.

Cut to: News.

Cone shaped and hovering over Staffordshire, a tornado ripped through the sky leaving a trail of destruction.

Cut to:

Days of torrential rain have led to flooding and landslides in Southern Italy

Cut to:

The people had no warning of the deluge. It came in the dead of night at they slept.

Cut to:

Record temperatures in Italy, Kosovo, and France have also sparked blazes.


By the early 2000s, scientists were finding more evidence that climate change was increasing the likelihood of extreme weather events.

Michael MacCracen, US Global Change Research Program, 1993-2002  was one of the US senior climate scientists.

Cut to: Overview. National Synthesis Team. US Global Research Program.

Climate Change Impacts on the US. The Potential Consequence of Climate Variability and Change.

My career was in climate modelling. From 1997-2002, I was in charge of making the first climate assessment on the US. What would be the likely impact? And what we found was that there would be no question it was rising concentrations of CO2 doing that. So that puts more pressure on this issue of phasing out fossil fuels.

Cut to:

If you really want to do something significant to slow this so our grandchildren don’t face a changing world, we’re going to have to make a substantial movement away from the key fossil fuels of coal and oil, particularly.

Cut to:


In January, 2001, MacCracen participated in a report for the intergovernmental-panel on climate change.

Cut to. Newpaper headline:

Scientists Predict Dire Prediction on Warning.

Cut to:

[voiceover] Beijing, 22 Jan, The report, approved unanimously, and described as the most comprehensive study to date. 

The IPCC predicted an increase in droughts, floods and violent storms across the planet (because air pollution is causing surface temperatures to rise faster than anticipated).    

‘unequivocally, for the first time, mankind is responsible for global warming.’

Michael MacCracen, US Global Change Research Program, 1993-2002  

The statement that came out of the IPCC said, look, humans are the main cause. And that turned out to be very controversial.

Cut to:

Document. From Randy Randol, ExonnMobil: Regarding Bush Team for IPCC Negotiations. To John Howard [Council for Environmental Quality] 

‘I will call to discuss the recommendations regarding the team that can better represent the Bush Administration’.

Voice over:

ExxonMobil went on the offensive, demanding that MacCracken and several other scientists that worked on the IPCC report ‘be replaced now’.

Accusing them of scientific bias. 

Michael MacCracen, US Global Change Research Program, 1993-2002  

The fax was sent by Randy Randol, the senior scientific advisor to ExxonMobil, page 6, 2001. It says US was represented by a Clinton-Gore carryovers with aggressive agendas. So, he offered his thoughts on what should be done.


They also targeted the IPCC chairman, British scientist, Professor Robert Watson.

Michael MacCracen, US Global Change Research Program, 1993-2002  

Their issue was – can Watson be replaced now, at the request of the US? I think they were trying to get him replaced, because then they could have better control. They wanted better control. They wanted IPCC to focus more on the uncertainties.

Cut to:

Document: Global Climate- Science Issues for 2001.

Bierbaum and MacCracken were both actively involved in the production of the US National Assessment that has been roundly criticized for its political and scientific bias. The National Assessment was driven by a political schedule to help the Gore campaign. Several controlled leaks were used to get maximum media attention since Congressional oversight forced a delay in the release of the report.

Issue: Have Bierbaum and McCracken been removed from their positions of influence?

Issue: What was the U.S. position on the WG1 Report? Did it reflect the comments received?

Michael MacCracen, US Global Change Research Program, 1993-2002  

It just didn’t like the science that was coming out, so was basically calling for a complete replacement of those that were leading the scientific enterprise. [Rosina Bierbaum and Michael MacCracken]

Cut to:


Within two years, the Americans that ExxonMobil had named, including MacCracken and the British IPCC chairman, Robert Watson, would retire or be replaced.

Michael MacCracen, US Global Change Research Program, 1993-2002  

ExxonMobil tried to control the discussion in the US. [Appoint Dr Richard Linzen MIT] And then put off the problem and make our profits now and we’ll slowly change. But we won’t do anything urgent enough as the science was indicating. So my term was going to be ending.  And so I chose to write a letter. It was the end of September 2002.

Directed to Lee Raymond as Chief Executive of ExxonMobil, but copied to everybody else.

Dear Mr Raymond, while my departure may be satisfying to ExxonMobil, I can assure this will not make the scientific challenge of climate change or its impacts go away. That  150 countries unanimously agreed about the science of this issue is not because of some green conspiracy. But because of the solid scientific understanding underpinning this issue.

To call ExxonMobil’s position out of the mainstream is thus a gross understatement. There can be all kinds of perspectives about what one might, or might not do, to start to  limit the extent of the change, but to be in opposition to the key scientific findings is rather appalling for such and established and scientific organization.

You are on the wrong side of history and you need to find a way to change your position.


  Cut to news programme: This is Charlie Rose.

Lee Raymond is here ExxonMobil chief executive, which is having a record year in 2005. His career has been a remarkable financial performance. He retires at the end of this year.

Raymond: It’s good to be here. Thank you.

Q. The environmental community thinks you are –pause- part of the problem. They say the following. Global warming is produced by CO2 emission in the air.

A: Do I disagree with the premise the earth is getting warmer?

Q Yes sir?

A No, I really don’t disagree with that. Climate has changed every year, for millions of years. If we weren’t here. The climate would change. There has been times in the earth’s history when there has been no ice on the earth. No ice on the earth! Man didn’t have anything to do with it.

Cut to:

Newspaper carousel.

Voiceover: ExonnMobil continued to promote the doubt and uncertainty about climate science. {Changes in one feature can affect the other} using adverts designed to look like journalistic content in major American newspapers.

Michael MacCracen, US Global Change Research Program, 1993-2002  

When I looked at those adverts at the time, I didn’t take them as being that important. Sitting inside the organisation and doing good science I doubted it was good science. I averted my gaze.

Cut to: [preview of an article]

So this one about uncertain science is highlighting uncertainties or vulnerabilities that are TRUE, but not important to the issue. It’s not something that deflects us from the basic idea that more CO2 changes the climate in a bad way.

They were sowing doubt. It was not just public posturing. It was truly casting aspersions on science.

Cut to:

Voiceover: ExxomMobil declined grant current interviews with current executives. In a statement the company told us there is no truth in the suggestion that it ever misled the public or policy makers about climate change. And it said its public statements about climate change have always been consistent with the contemporary understanding of mainstream science.

Cut to:

Michael MacCracen, US Global Change Research Program, 1993-2002  

So it would be correct in saying that Lee Raymond was consistent with science in saying that we don’t quite know what the answer is. But he was out of sync with the science of the time which said if you keep going in this direction then it’s going to be bad. That conclusion has no changed in 30 or 40 years. As a matter of commercial self-interest, the company was casting aspersions, casting doubt. Trying to make it so real, meaningful changed didn’t happen.

Cut to:

Image, river flood.

Voiceover: Scientists are telling us these kinds of events are becoming more frequent. And probably more intense.  As a result of human-induced global warming.

Cut to:

Image: Fire.

Voiceover: extreme drought conditions are providing fuel for wild fires.

There are many predictions that Hurricane Katrina will turn out to be the most expensive natural disaster and certainly not the first.

Cut to:

Image: Trees bending in wind.

Voiceover: Hurricane activity that’s been so much in correlation with the rise in tropical ocean temperatures, which globally is attributable to global warming.

But the signal is pretty unmistakable.

Cut to:

Voiceover: As the science and the warnings became clearer and more urgent, some of the fossil fuels’ most reliable allies started having doubts.

Cut to:

[younger] Jerry Taylor. Cato Institute, 1991-2014.

I look back at the work I did then with a lot of regrets. The years we were told there would be massive die-offs from mass population. That never happened. People would starve. And that never happened.

Cut to:

Fox News [voiceover]

 Now we’ve got a global warming issue. Allegedly.

Cut to:

It became increasingly clear to me. [present] As I debated smart people using state-of-the art information that was being generated in real time in the academic literature, that my job became increasingly difficult. The arguments weren’t adding up. That began my move away from climate scepticism. Because as the 2000s play out, the arguments for action on the scientific front become stronger and stronger and stronger. If I had known at the time, what ExonnMobil had known internally, as we are becoming increasingly aware. No, I would have definitely have been in a different place. If there was an intervention I could make through a time machine, I’d tackle it. Go to my other self, and drag him offstage and get him to do something else for a living.

Cut to:

[image] Big Ben, London.

[voiceover] the PM’s warning that oil firms should pass on price cuts came as BP announced its biggest quarterly profits.


The BP boss has presided over a bumper time for his company. He has kept profits pumping into their billions.

[voiceover] BP was no making record profits from oil and gas. But its solar division was struggling.  

John Browne, CEO BP 1995-2007.

The technologies were not as good as they are today. So they were continually loss-making. And vastly expensive. The price was coming down. But we could never get it down far enough to make it a commercial proposition. I left the company, shortly, thereafter.

The climate vision and BP, I think took a timeout. Basically, after I left, for quite a big period. While the price of oil went through the roof. And people focussed on oil and gas. Hugh profitability created a high degree of arrogance. Because you were generating so much money, you could forget everything else.

Cut to:

Front page of Time, reads: Special Report, Global Warming. Be worried. Be very worried. [Competitive Enterprise Institute video] ie Big Oil.

[commentary] you’ve seen those headlines about global warming, [Front page, The Washington Post, 3rd March 2006, Antarctic Ice Sheet is Melting Rapidly.] The glaciers are melting. We’re doomed. That’s what several studies supposedly found. 

But other scientific studies found exactly the opposite.

Cut to:


ExxonMobil was still funding think-tanks. Accused of spreading misinformation about climate change.

[example. The Antarctic Ice Sheet is getting thicker, not thinner. And as for carbon dioxide,  they call it pollution. We call it life { image of a pretty woman blowing bubbles} Competitive Enterprise Institute. [www. celarg]

Cut to: Kert Davies, Climate Investigations Center

From 1988 onwards,  Exxon alone put over $30 million into think-tanks that were offering uncertainty. Questioning the climate science. Questioning policies that were being proposed. Really, casting doubt on anything that had to do with climate change at the state level. At the national level. And internationally.

Cut to:


Voiceover, the company’s new CEO, Rex Tillison [ExonnMobil] now acknowledged climate change was a risk. But defended questioning the science.

[ExxonMobil Conference, Rex Tillison presiding.]

Q from floor: Is Exxon still funding organisations and individuals that consistently put forward a view that global warming is not caused by human activity?

A I don’t really read that. They’re examining science. Coal and science. Gas and science. Things that don’t have a good scientific basis.

Cut to:

NEELA BANERJEE, Supervising Climate Editor, NPR.

Under Rex Tillerson, Exon finally admitted that man-made climate change was occurring. But there was a contradiction in its business practices. In things Rex Tillerson, as leader of Exxon said, off the cuff about climate change. And it’s continued funding of organisations that denied the reality of climate change.

Cut to:

Rex Tillerson: having a good debate is what’s sorely needed. And this rush to say we’ve got everything figured out.  I hate to say it, but that ain’t so.

Cut to:

[image: Washington lightning storm]

Voicever: But the scientific warnings were becoming even more urgent.

Cut to:


Newsreader. Top scientists are convinced changes may spiral out of control because of what we are pumping into the air every day.

Cut to:

Newsreader. Put the world on the verge of catastrophe.

Cut to:

[Voiceover] Public support for climate change was at an all-time high. And an Oscar-winning film was sounding the alarm to a wider audience across the world.

Cut to:

Al Gore, An Inconvenient Truth {Paramount}

I am Al Gore. I used to be the next President of the US.  [stills from film] This is Patagonia 75 years ago. And the same place today.

Al Gore [older/contempary] US Vice-President 1993-2001.

We had reality on our side. And tragically, the felt consequences of the climate crisis were growing in intensity and frequency, in severity. It was time to re-group again.  And double-down.


Cut to: Barrack Obama- President.

[speech]  I am absolutely certain that generations from now, we will be able to look back and tell our children, that this was the moment when the rise of the oceans began to slow and our planet began to heal.

Cut to:

Jonathan Phillips, Democrat Congressional Staff, 2007-14.

This was a big moment when President Obama was elected. Came in with a mandate. He campaigned on this. He got people excited about this.  There was no sneaking this issue past anybody. This was on everybody’s radar. Everyone knew what was coming. We thought we were part of making history.

Cut to:

Voiceover: Inside ExxonMobil top executives were plotting how to respond. They contacted Bennet Freeman. A specialist in human rights and corporate responsibility.

Cut to:

Bennet Freeman, Vice President Sustainability Research and Policy Calvert Investments, 2006-15. 

I had an informal conversation in the back of a limousine with Ken Koen at ExxonMobil who was essentially their policy and public-affairs officer. I thought Exxon was shamefully out of the action, because it became so apparent that climate science was real. So my advice to Ken was for the company to finally take a positon on public policy. To make an unequivocal statement accepting the reality of climate science. To make and unequivocal commitment to not fund any more climate denial research which Exxon was infamous for supporting. For funding directly. And to take a positive, proactive positon supporting action at the US federal level.

Amazingly, that speech happened.

Cut to:

Speech, Rex Tillerson: Globally, the outlook for energy expects energy related carbon dioxide emissions to rise on average by one percent per year through the year till 2030.

These two fundamental realities mean an enormous demand in growth and managing the risk of greenhouse gases are the twin challenges of our time.  

Bennet Freeman, Vice President Sustainability Research and Policy Calvert Investments, 2006-15. 

This company was essentially like the caveman, from the Neanderthal era, who finally came out, blinking into the sunshine of the twenty-first century. Yet, I think, it was the first time, that at least the CEO level, they started, just started to take a policy positon that was potentially constructive.

[cf they’d taken a destructive positon]

It was important to acknowledge this was an initial step. It is equally important, more important in my position, to emphasise it was little and late.


Cut to: Washington.

President Obama speech.

I ask this Congress to send me legislation that places a market-based cap on carbon pollution. And drives the production of more renewable energy in America. [applause]

That’s what we need.

Cut to:

Voiceover: The President began pushing a climate bill which would radically reduce carbon emissions Known as the Cap-And-Trade Bill.

Jonathan Phillips was part of the team that drafted it.

Jonathan Phillips, Democrat Congressional Staff, 2007-14.

I was passionate about it, because you can’t really get any closer to the fire, right? This is where laws would be made to deal with what I believed was an existential crisis for humanity. The ultimate goal of the bill was to reduce carbon emissions by 80% below 2005 levels by 2050. And that’s a lot of fossil industry. A lot of oil and gas producers, the coal miners, the coal companies, refineries. It was going to hit someone’s pocketbook.

Cut to:

Voiceover: ExxonMobil opposed the Bill. In spite of its new position on climate change. But other players in the industry would lead the counterattack    

Al Gore [older/contempary] US Vice-President 1993-2001.

The strength of the forces arrayed against us was quite large. I raised the $300 million to run prime-time advertisements to support President Obama’s climate initiative. I knew by then the large polluters would stop at nothing to try and prevent it.

Cut to:

Voiceover: [ad for Big Oil] Koch Industries has been called the biggest company you’ve never heard of. The sprawling giant includes pipelines, petrochemicals, asphalt plants, trading floors based in Wichita, Kansas it sells everything from gasoline to beef.

Cut to:

Christopher Leonard, author of Kochland.

In 2009 Koch Industry is the second largest privately held company in the US, whose annual sales are bigger than Goldman Sachs, US Steel and Facebook combined.

Cut to:


Koch’s core business is distribution. It owns 37 000 miles of pipeline.

Cut to: Christopher Leonard, author of Kochland.

Koch is just deeply embedded in the fossil fuel industry. It trades, ships and transports natural gas, oil, gasoline.  So when you think about anything that would reduce demand or increase the price for fossil fuels, it’s a tremendous threat to Koch’s business.

Cut to:

Voiceover: Koch Industry was owned by two brothers.

David Koch who died in 2019.

Charles Koch. 

Cut to: Christopher Leonard, author of Kochland.

People who had been inside this organisation for decades described David Koch as essentially a silent partner. Charles was the master strategist. This is a person who understands science. Who lives by science. Who lives by data. And yet he’s been one of the largest proponents of casting doubt on the science behind climate change.

This is a moment when the potential for passing climate-change regulation was more real than it’s ever been in history. Full stop. That’s why you saw the Koch political machine kick into high gear.

David Hoffman, Senior Counsel (Environmental lawyer at) Koch Industries, 2005-2010. 

Voice over. This is the first time he has spoken on camera about his work there.

Cut to:  Film of Charles Koch

Viewing of recording. Voice: Do you believe in anthropomorphic climate change?

Koch: Greenhouse gases are contributing to that. But I don’t think anybody knows how much. I don’t think science is settled. How could it be? In fact, science is never settled.

David Hoffman, Senior Counsel (Environmental lawyer at) Koch Industries, 2005-2010. 

My father, basically said to me, don’t work for the devil. This is a company that doesn’t care about the impact they’re having on the world. It encouraged me even more to work for Koch Industries, for I felt like, maybe I can convince people within Koch Industries that environmental compliance isn’t such a bad thing.


Hoffman was given the job of assessing what the climate bill would mean for Koch Industries. He met with a team of senior Koch lobbyists.  

David Hoffman, Senior Counsel (Environmental lawyer at) Koch Industries, 2005-2010. 

I was invited to this meeting. The discussion quickly turned from the possibility this Bill might pass, and what we should be doing to prepare for it, to a discussion about how we were going to prevent it from passing. Who are vulnerable Republicans that we need to target? To make sure they don’t vote for this Bill. We cannot let this Bill pass. We won’t let this Bill pass. And we’ll do everything in our power to prevent it from passing.

Cut to:

Shot: Defending the American Dream: Americans for Prosperity.

Voiceover. The Koch brothers poured money into efforts to kill the Bill. The right-wing- advocacy group, Americans for Prosperity spearheaded the effort.

Shot. David Koch’s speech:

Five years ago, my brother Charles and I, provided the funds to start Americans for Prosperity (AFP). And it’s beyond my wildest dreams how AFP has grown to this enormous organisation, 800 000 activists from nothing five years ago.


Backed with Koch money, AFP had begun rallying opposition on the ground across the country.

Steve Lonegan a senior staffer at AFP helped to mobilise the movement.  2006-2013.

Cut to: party speech

This county is heading in the wrong direction. But like the country of old we stand and are going to rise to the occasion. Know that. We’re not going to let this Cap and Trade Bill pass.

Steve Lonegan a senior staffer at AFP helped to mobilise the movement.  2006-2013.

Cut to: (contemporary)

I see an underlying American sentiment behind much of this climate change discussion. Today’s axis of evil the Chinese Communist Party,  American Wonk Activism,  and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Those three elements together are designed to drive down American’s productivity. That’ s what’s at stake.

Cut to images (billboard: Obama with a Hitler moustache, Don’t Tax me Bro, End the Fed, Socialism: Trickle Up Poverty)

Voice over: Lonegan: We as a nation have come to the realisation that the very core values and principles are under attack like never before in our lifetime.

Steve Lonegan a senior staffer at AFP helped to mobilise the movement.  2006-2013.

It became very obvious that the Republican Party was not willing to fight the fight. And Charles Koch, who is on my view, a hero and visionary, saw this problem. So we had a multifaceted hard-hitting approach. Pressurising Republicans who were needy and Democrats who were vulnerable, because they would be impacted from this. If you’re going to go into war, like this was. The first thing you’ve got to do is get your troops marching. Get them energised. And that’s what we did. That summer.

Cut to:

Images: People marching.

Voiceover: It was a time when many Republican Party members were joining the Tea-Party movement, which advocated lower taxes and smaller government.

This was a volatile term in American life. We just had the biggest economic collapse since the Depression.  The Tea-Party movement was activated by a lot of genuine political passion.

David Hoffman, Senior Counsel (Environmental lawyer at) Koch Industries, 2005-2010. 

Koch very cunningly stepped in and channelled that to Koch’s end. Koch took that passion and told these people, oh, hey, by the way, the government is trying to regulate greenhouse gases, which is another form of socialist tyranny.  And they’re trying to take your country away from you.

Images: Voice over of crowd. Nobamacare, No Cap-n-tax. Kill the Bill.

Jonathan Phillips, Democrat Congressional Staff, 2007-14.

All of a sudden people started to get really energised about climate change and not in a positive way. There are people screaming and they’re animated about Cap and Trade! And it’s like, what  just happened? How did this happen?

Cut to Image of billboard: Cap & Trade: Our Constitution is being Raped. Time to take a Stand.

Jonathan Phillips, Democrat Congressional Staff, 2007-14.

From the summer of 2009, through the winter into the spring, we gradually saw the US Senate back away from Climate. 

Steve Lonegan a senior staffer at AFP helped to mobilise the movement.  2006-2013.

We stopped them from even going for a vote in the US Senate. So it died. Its own death. And at that point everybody knew it was over. Back to the drawing board for the progressive left.

Jonathan Phillips, Democrat Congressional Staff, 2007-14.

I think we all knew this was the end of Climate Legislation in the US Congress for a long time. We had a shot at it, and we got beat.

David Hoffman, Senior Counsel (Environmental lawyer at) Koch Industries, 2005-2010. 

This was our one moment of opportunity when we could have done something dramatic. Not just for  the US, but for the world. To me it was a huge lost opportunity.


Narrator: No one from Koch Industry would agree to an interview.

To me this was sort of the worst part of the underbelly of our democracy. It’s basically influence pedalling. I became terribly disheartened by what Koch stood for, and what I could do. I felt very isolated and I couldn’t in good conscience stay.


 Image: US flag waving. Pickets chanting.

Voiceover: But the Kochs didn’t stop there. They now set out removing any Republican politicians who previously supported climate action by packing rival Republican candidates.

Steve Lonegan a senior staffer at AFP helped to mobilise the movement.  2006-2013.

The Republican Party needed to be shored up. It needed to be given a backbone. Some incumbent can be sitting there all fat and happy. Thinking they’re sitting there ensconced and can’t be beaten. We were letting them know, we’re going to knock them out in the Primary.


Washington commentator.  It’s all a hoax. 

Cut to: Christopher Leonard, author of Kochland.

This is where you saw the perfection of the Primary strategy. Thereby Koch would give money to the Primary candidate to take out a candidate that had crossed Koch on climate change.

Voiceover: Bob Inglis was a Republican Congressman who the Koch’s had previously supported. Now they withdrew their funding. And backed another candidate.

[Double Jeopardy]

Bob Inglis, Former US Congressman.

 I can say orthodoxy at the time was to say climate change is real. Let’s do something about it. They didn’t want their money being spent on people talking what I was talking.

On a very memorable occasion, a big tent meeting. All my Primary opponents were there. The guy asking the questions would say: Local. Christian Radio. Talk Host. And his question for me was is climate change human caused and do you support a carbon tax? 

And so I said, yes, and yes.

Cut to: Bob Inglis, speaking at this meeting in 2010.

I do believe that humans contribute to climate change. And, actually, let me strike that. I don’t believe that is an article of faith for me. All my faith tells me is to look at the data.  The data says that’s happening.

Cut to: Bob Inglis, Former US Congressman.

And then it goes the guy we’re concerned about. Because he’s a very capable fellow.

Cut to: Trey Gowdy, Primary candidate speaking at meeting in 2010.

No carbon tax, I’ve been a prosecutor for sixteen years. It’s not been proven to me or other people global warming has been proved to the satisfaction of the decisions I’ve seen… [Applause]

Cut to: Bob Inglis, Former US Congressman.

I think that was a particularly good answer. But it won’t win you a profile in courage. But good answer. But good answer, politically.

Cut to: Visual image. US House of Representatives, South Carolina, District 4:

Trey Gowdy 71% [of vote] Bob Inglis 29%.

Commentator: a huge margin of victory. Inglis lost every County in the District. He’s a seasoned Congressman going down to a huge defeat tonight.

Cut to: Bob Inglis, Former US Congressman.

You know it’s quite a spectacular face bind, getting 29% of the vote after 12 years in Congress. And it became a lesson to others. You toe the line. They wanted to make sure that other Republicans knew, you deviate from this and we’ll get you. And so, my scalp and others were hung on the wall. To show this is what’s going to happen to you. Object lesson.

Cut to: Image and speaker with gavel in House of Representative, cheering Congressmen.

Voiceover: Later that year, the Republicans won a historic majority in the mid-term elections. Many of the candidates had signed an Americans For Prosperity Pledge (NoClimateTax.comPledge) opposing climate change legislation.

Steve Lonegan a senior staffer at AFP helped to mobilise the movement.  2006-2013.

The achievement of 2010, the newly elected Republican, the vast majority signed our carbon pledge.  To put an end to that whole climate change argument until now. It’s been a dead issue.

Cut to: Interview with David Koch.

Q: Are you proud what Americans for Prosperity has achieved here?

A: You bet I am. Man, oh man. We’re going to do more too, in the next couple of years.

Cut to: Flags flying.

Cut to: Christopher Leonard, author of Kochland.

Koch Industries was able to reshape the Republican Party into one that identified with the idea that climate change was not real. That the science is a hoax. And that is a positon of zero compromise. And total opposition, not only to any laws, but even to an acknowledgement that the problem was real.

Jonathan Phillips, Democrat Congressional Staff, 2007-14.

I don’t think that in anyone’s wildest imagination on the industry side that the hoax argument would get to become the mainstream argument of the Party. It did. That’s half of our political system. So you can’t really get anything done if one Party is not even a part of the debate.

We’re politically gridlocked. And what happens in the US is what happens globally, this climate crisis is burning up the planet.

Cut to: Image. Blackened sky and burning fire.

11 Years Later.

Cut to, Images, floods. US Police rescuing citizens. Voiceover: A UN Report said climate change is accelerating and we’re running out of time to stop it.

Images: PBS News. Burning trees.  Voicever: Punishing and extreme weather, once more putting lives at risk.

Climate change is now widespread and rapid. And intensified by human activity which has warmed the climate.

Voiceover. Narrator. Ladies and Gentleman what do you say about climate in the next ten years.

Cut to image of Jerry Taylor (Cato Institute) speaking on Fox News c2010,

What we have seen is…

Cut to,  older, Jerry Taylor. Cato Institute, 1991-2014.

I absolutely feel used by my old allies. There were people in the fossil fuel industry, and actors in these oil companies, who knew full well that the narratives coming out of the mainstream scientific community and IPCC were exactly correct.

Cut to:  image, younger Jerry Taylor speaking…

Cut to older, Jerry Taylor. Cato Institute, 1991-2014.

All I have in my defence is I made the arguments in good faith at the time. In my opinion, the fossil-fuel industry has been engaged in a multi-decade act of fraud. And had they been more forthcoming and honest about it, what they’d been doing at the beginning of this debate, it would have gone on a very different trajectory.

Cut to, Images London.

John Browne, CEO BP 1995-2007.

I’ve been involved in the oil and gas industry since the sixties, I think I’ve been in an industry that helped the world but it can’t do what it’s been doing in the past. It has to change.

Looking backwards, over 25 years, we have really lost a quarter century of what we should have really been doing.

Cut to: Images of snowy landscape. Jerry Taylor, jogging through it.

 older, Jerry Taylor. Cato Institute, 1991-2014

The world as an ecosystem, as an entity, is in big trouble, to think about the fact we are making it worse is a hard thing to wrap your head around. If I could have seen earlier, that the hydrocarbon industry was responsible for distracting attention from climate change, I would have taken a different path. I bear responsibility for creating bad outcomes. I consider, often, what kind of world are my grandchildren live in?  Fifty years from now, they’ll rightly look back and say: what were you thinking?   


Image: Drilling derrick working in the desert.

Voiceover: What do you do when the product you make threatens the entire planet?

ExonMobbil provides an essential component of modern society. Affordable. Reliable. And abundant energy.

More than 40 years ago, oil industry scientists warned that burning fossil fuels would cause climate change.

They were making eerily accurate predictions about high the C02 concentration in the atmosphere would be. 

[further notes to follow]